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The best biochars for soils are made agricultural residues and animal manure (combined both is best). For improved cation exchange capacity keep your temperatures to around 450C. If u make in a pit or mound like traditional charcoal making you will be in the best temperature range. We encourage people to use low emissions kilns but sometimes you have to start with low cost traditional methods until you can establish a market for the biochar.
From an economic standpoint you are best to make biochar by mixing straw manure with wood residues that come from sustainable tree production (or even better from woody weeds from invasive species) sell the lump charcoal for fuel and use the fine biochar material in a fertiliser mix. Mike has lots of good recipes for this.
Having worked in parts of Africa for 30 years I am against charcoal production from cutting trees from native forests.
On Wed, Apr 15, 2020 at 2:47 AM Environmental Industries <licusociety@...> wrote: