Date   

Re: Birnessite Composite

Tom Miles
 

Biochar amended composts are the most likely combination and the ones which have reported improved water availability in field applications.  

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Rick Wilson via groups.io
Sent: Saturday, July 31, 2021 12:04 PM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [Biochar] Birnessite Composite

 

Mike,

Surprisingly, the water holding capacity of the composts I have tested (thousands of samples) is greater than that of any of the biochar’s I have tested (commercially available ones).

However, I do not have data on Plant Available water, which may tell a different story (pressure plate measurement)

 

Rick

 

On Jul 31, 2021, at 6:07 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

 

Rick,

Have you considered improving the water holding capacity of the compost, as a way to create a market.?   

Mike 

 


Re: Birnessite Composite

Rick Wilson
 

Mike,
Surprisingly, the water holding capacity of the composts I have tested (thousands of samples) is greater than that of any of the biochar’s I have tested (commercially available ones).
However, I do not have data on Plant Available water, which may tell a different story (pressure plate measurement)

Rick

On Jul 31, 2021, at 6:07 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

Rick,

Have you considered improving the water holding capacity of the compost, as a way to create a market.?   

Mike 


How biochar works, and when it doesn't: A review of mechanisms controlling soil and plant responses to biochar

Tom Miles
 

Australia, China, Norway, Spain, Israel, Russia, South Korea, USA: How biochar works, and when it doesn't: A review of mechanisms controlling soil and plant responses to biochar

 

We synthesized 20 years of research to explain the interrelated processes that determine soil and plant responses to biochar. Biochar properties and its effects within agricultural ecosystems largely depend on feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. We describe three stages of reactions of biochar in soil: dissolution (1-3 weeks); reactive surface development (1-6 months); and aging (beyond 6 months). As biochar ages, it is incorporated into soil aggregates, protecting the biochar carbon and promoting stabilization of rhizodeposits and microbial products. Biochar carbon persists in soil for hundreds to thousands of years. By increasing pH, porosity and water availability, biochars can create favorable conditions for root development and microbial functions. Biochars can catalyze biotic and abiotic reactions, particularly in the rhizosphere, that increase nutrient supply and uptake by plants, reduce phytotoxins, stimulate plant development and increase resilience to disease and environmental stressors. Meta-analyses found that biochars increase P availability 4.6 times, on average; decrease plant tissue concentration of heavy metals by 17-39%; build soil organic carbon through negative priming by 3.8% (range -21-20%); and reduce non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions from soil by 12- 50%. Meta-analyses show average crop yield increases of 10-42% with biochar addition, with greatest increases in low-nutrient P-sorbing acidic soils (common in the tropics) and in sandy soils in drylands due to increase in nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Studies report a wide range of plant responses to biochars due to the diversity of biochars and contexts in which biochars have been applied. Crop yields increase strongly if site-specific soil constraints and nutrient/water limitations are mitigated by appropriate biochar formulations. Biochars can be tailored to address site constraints through feedstock selection, by modifying pyrolysis conditions, through pre- or post-production treatments, or co-application with organic or mineral fertilizers. We demonstrate how, when used wisely, biochar mitigates climate change, and supports food security and the circular economy.

 

Authors: Stephen Joseph, Annette L. Cowie, Lukas Van Zwieten4,5, Nanthi Bolan, Alice Buda,Wolfram Buss,Maria Luz Cayuela, Ellen R. Graber, Jim Ippolito, Yakov KuzyakovYu Luo, Yong Sik Ok, Kumuduni Niroshika Palansooriya, Jessica Shepherd, Scott Stephens, Zhe (Han) Weng, Johannes Lehmann

 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/gcbb.12885


Re: Birnessite Composite

mikethewormguy
 

Rick,

Have you considered improving the water holding capacity of the compost, as a way to create a market.?   

Mike 


Re: Birnessite Composite

mikethewormguy
 

Rick,

From my experience, a typical per acre grow cycle use of humic acid is 1-4lbs per acre.

So if compost was used as a source of HA then 1 cy of compost would be enough for quite a few acres based on your numbers.

Not sure why improving the HA amount in compost is a viable goal...?

my 2 curious cents,

Mike


Re: Birnessite Composite

Rick Wilson
 

MIke, I don’t know what the HA is for compost.   60% is a good target.

The composter already pays for consumers to take their product, so they have more room for pricing, than anyone.

The average wholesale price for mined HA is $300 per ton. 

Rick

On Jul 28, 2021, at 7:40 PM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

Rick,

What is the %HA is typical of compost.?   How much more %HA is desired ?

A reference point is  OMRI listed 100% sprayed dried HA powder that is affordable.

So is it better to use a powder or compost source?

Mike


Re: Birnessite Composite

mikethewormguy
 

Rick,

What is the %HA is typical of compost.?   How much more %HA is desired ?

A reference point is  OMRI listed 100% sprayed dried HA powder that is affordable.

So is it better to use a powder or compost source?

Mike


Re: Birnessite Composite

Stephen Joseph
 

Hi Rick

Spray on a soluble solution of  an Fe and Mn salt onto your biomass (about 5% by weight of biomass), coat with a little clay (10% by weight of the dry biomass) that also has a high Fe and Mn content and pyrolyse at 450-480C and you are up and running.

You have a redox active slightly magnetic biochar that will promote formation of the functionalised organic macro molecules.  if you want it to be more effective pyrolyse half at 600C and half at 400-450C as this gives you a whole range of different organic molecules in your biochar that can improve biotic and abiotic processes in composting.   can characterise whatever you produce.

Any funding for our research projects to keep my students employed always welcome.

Regards
Stephen

On Thu, Jul 29, 2021 at 9:40 AM Rick Wilson via groups.io <rick012=yahoo.com@groups.io> wrote:
Thanks Stephen!

Is there a particular material you would try at scale, something I could buy truck loads of in California, that does not cost so much?

I have a large composter interested research to increase humic acid in their composts.  Its an ECS system (air drawn through the pile), so you are looking at 500 tons at a time.
It would be a two year program with at least six replicates of each condition.  I have to present the plan to the Air board in two weeks, and I’m betting it gets approved. 

I have another commercial composting project planned to do emission tests (actually to develop emissions model as a function of operating parameters, VOC and NH3) at a commercial site with biochar blends in a Gore system (covered).  Even with the Gore VOC output limits the throughput. Another multi-year study.  Any thoughts on how much biochar. You would use?

Best,
Rick



On Jul 28, 2021, at 4:31 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:

Hi Rick

Yes we have done work on this and there is a lot of literature out there on putting redox active nanoparticles onto the surface of the biochar that enhances Maillard reactions and formation of larger functionalise organic molecules (remember the Johannes Lehman does not consider humus as a specific compound). I suggest you read this

Gonzalez, J.M. 2009. Clay surface catalysis of formation of humic substances:
potential role of Maillard reactions. In: Laird, D.A., Cervini‐Silva, J., editors. CMS
Workshop Lectures, Carbon Stabilization by Clays in the Environment: Process and
Characterization Methods. The Clay Mineral Society. 16:51‐76 
and you also read this 
Li YR, Yu SR, Strong J, Wang H. 2012. Are the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus driven by the “ FeIII–FeII redox wheel ” in dynamic redox environments? J. Soils Sediments. 12, 683-693

What we found when we examined Terra Preta black carbon particles is the surface of the carbon is coated with Mn/O and FeO nanoparticles adn these are bonded together with large organic molecules.  These particles are both redox active and magnetic .

I formulate composites to enhance formation of organic macro-molecules.  it is not that difficult.  What is interesting is the minerals then protect the macromolecules resulting a their much greater recalcitrance.

Regards
Stephen

<image.png>

On Thu, Jul 29, 2021 at 4:26 AM Rick Wilson via groups.io <rick012=yahoo.com@groups.io> wrote:
Re mineral interactions, Does anyone have experience creating and testing a Birnessite (Manganese) composite?

Apparently this material catalyzes humification in natural sediments.

Rick

<Screen Shot 2021-07-28 at 11.21.17 AM.png>



On Jul 25, 2021, at 4:23 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:

It really depends on the type of reactor and fooedstock.  I usually find that if the feedstock surface is slightly damp and I am using sawdust or chip  it will coat the surface.  If  fo straw or other materials that have wax coatigns then  mix with a little clay and water and  tumble in a mixer.  For large scale we use  Keenan small scale cement mixer

On Sat, Jul 24, 2021 at 10:48 AM Dale Hendricks <dale@...> wrote:
Thanks Kelpie and Stephen- and as far as adding rock dust to the feedstock before pyrolysis- does one make a “mud” slurry, dip the wood in- and then dry out and fire up? Thinking here on a small scale, thanks, Dale Hendricks 


On Jul 23, 2021, at 7:53 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:


Hi Kelpie

Try adding rock dust to your biomass and then pyrolysing.  Works  better than either by themselves because you have added a small layer of carbon molecules to the rock dust particles and these are great food for the microbes as well as acting as signalling molecules and changes in soil Eh.

Regards
Stephen

On Sat, Jul 24, 2021 at 2:20 AM Kelpie Wilson <kelpiew@...> wrote:
Thank you for this Laurent. 
Anecdotally, since I bought a literal ton of volcanic rock dust last year and started using it in my garden and compost, I have seen a huge improvement in my soil and the best plant growth ever. Things are greener, bigger, and I have less foliar fungal disease.
My garden is 40 raised beds worked by two families. We grow most of our own vegetables including potatoes, onions, carrots, parsnips, garlic, leeks, shallots, tomatoes, peppers, raspberries, grapes, figs, all kinds of salad greens, brassicas, peas, beans, herbs and tons and tons of flowers. 
I have been using biochar all along, of course, and it has greatly improved my soil, but when I tested it and found it was 30% carbon, I realized that I needed more minerals. 
Rock dust is really working for me. 

--
Email: kelpiew@...
Mobile: 541-218-9890
Time zone: Pacific Time, USA

Join the US Biochar Initiative North American Biochar Industry Directory. Go to https://biochar-us.org/get-usbi-directory-listing to get your free listing.









Re: Birnessite Composite

Rick Wilson
 

Mike, HA is not a misunderstood market.  Its about 1.2 BN $ globally.  Perhaps you mean that what it does is misunderstood?
Rick


On Jul 28, 2021, at 6:56 PM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

Rick,

Compost was described to me as 'the most misunderstood material sold to the most misinformed consumer'.  

So who is asking for using compost as a HA source or is this a producer trying to create a market for a material that would be even less understood...?

Greater supply does not means greater demand...  

my 2 cents...

Mike


Re: Birnessite Composite

mikethewormguy
 

Rick,

Compost was described to me as 'the most misunderstood material sold to the most misinformed consumer'.  

So who is asking for using compost as a HA source or is this a producer trying to create a market for a material that would be even less understood...?

Greater supply does not means greater demand...  

my 2 cents...

Mike


Re: Birnessite Composite

Rick Wilson
 

Mike, the goal is to produce and sell an enhanced HA material, as a substitute for mined HA. 

Keep in mind what is going on in CA.  SB 1383 is pushing all the green and food out of landfills.  Supply of compost >> demand.

So find a way to put it into another market. 

Rick


On Jul 28, 2021, at 6:19 PM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

Rick,

What are the expected outcome from an enhanced HA production ?

Mike


Re: Birnessite Composite

mikethewormguy
 

Rick,

What are the expected outcome from an enhanced HA production ?

Mike


Re: Birnessite Composite

Rick Wilson
 

Thanks Stephen!

Is there a particular material you would try at scale, something I could buy truck loads of in California, that does not cost so much?

I have a large composter interested research to increase humic acid in their composts.  Its an ECS system (air drawn through the pile), so you are looking at 500 tons at a time.
It would be a two year program with at least six replicates of each condition.  I have to present the plan to the Air board in two weeks, and I’m betting it gets approved. 

I have another commercial composting project planned to do emission tests (actually to develop emissions model as a function of operating parameters, VOC and NH3) at a commercial site with biochar blends in a Gore system (covered).  Even with the Gore VOC output limits the throughput. Another multi-year study.  Any thoughts on how much biochar. You would use?

Best,
Rick



On Jul 28, 2021, at 4:31 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:

Hi Rick

Yes we have done work on this and there is a lot of literature out there on putting redox active nanoparticles onto the surface of the biochar that enhances Maillard reactions and formation of larger functionalise organic molecules (remember the Johannes Lehman does not consider humus as a specific compound). I suggest you read this

Gonzalez, J.M. 2009. Clay surface catalysis of formation of humic substances:
potential role of Maillard reactions. In: Laird, D.A., Cervini‐Silva, J., editors. CMS
Workshop Lectures, Carbon Stabilization by Clays in the Environment: Process and
Characterization Methods. The Clay Mineral Society. 16:51‐76 
and you also read this 
Li YR, Yu SR, Strong J, Wang H. 2012. Are the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus driven by the “ FeIII–FeII redox wheel ” in dynamic redox environments? J. Soils Sediments. 12, 683-693

What we found when we examined Terra Preta black carbon particles is the surface of the carbon is coated with Mn/O and FeO nanoparticles adn these are bonded together with large organic molecules.  These particles are both redox active and magnetic .

I formulate composites to enhance formation of organic macro-molecules.  it is not that difficult.  What is interesting is the minerals then protect the macromolecules resulting a their much greater recalcitrance.

Regards
Stephen

<image.png>

On Thu, Jul 29, 2021 at 4:26 AM Rick Wilson via groups.io <rick012=yahoo.com@groups.io> wrote:
Re mineral interactions, Does anyone have experience creating and testing a Birnessite (Manganese) composite?

Apparently this material catalyzes humification in natural sediments.

Rick

<Screen Shot 2021-07-28 at 11.21.17 AM.png>



On Jul 25, 2021, at 4:23 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:

It really depends on the type of reactor and fooedstock.  I usually find that if the feedstock surface is slightly damp and I am using sawdust or chip  it will coat the surface.  If  fo straw or other materials that have wax coatigns then  mix with a little clay and water and  tumble in a mixer.  For large scale we use  Keenan small scale cement mixer

On Sat, Jul 24, 2021 at 10:48 AM Dale Hendricks <dale@...> wrote:
Thanks Kelpie and Stephen- and as far as adding rock dust to the feedstock before pyrolysis- does one make a “mud” slurry, dip the wood in- and then dry out and fire up? Thinking here on a small scale, thanks, Dale Hendricks 


On Jul 23, 2021, at 7:53 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:


Hi Kelpie

Try adding rock dust to your biomass and then pyrolysing.  Works  better than either by themselves because you have added a small layer of carbon molecules to the rock dust particles and these are great food for the microbes as well as acting as signalling molecules and changes in soil Eh.

Regards
Stephen

On Sat, Jul 24, 2021 at 2:20 AM Kelpie Wilson <kelpiew@...> wrote:
Thank you for this Laurent. 
Anecdotally, since I bought a literal ton of volcanic rock dust last year and started using it in my garden and compost, I have seen a huge improvement in my soil and the best plant growth ever. Things are greener, bigger, and I have less foliar fungal disease.
My garden is 40 raised beds worked by two families. We grow most of our own vegetables including potatoes, onions, carrots, parsnips, garlic, leeks, shallots, tomatoes, peppers, raspberries, grapes, figs, all kinds of salad greens, brassicas, peas, beans, herbs and tons and tons of flowers. 
I have been using biochar all along, of course, and it has greatly improved my soil, but when I tested it and found it was 30% carbon, I realized that I needed more minerals. 
Rock dust is really working for me. 

--
Email: kelpiew@...
Mobile: 541-218-9890
Time zone: Pacific Time, USA

Join the US Biochar Initiative North American Biochar Industry Directory. Go to https://biochar-us.org/get-usbi-directory-listing to get your free listing.









Re: Birnessite Composite

Stephen Joseph
 

Hi Rick

Yes we have done work on this and there is a lot of literature out there on putting redox active nanoparticles onto the surface of the biochar that enhances Maillard reactions and formation of larger functionalise organic molecules (remember the Johannes Lehman does not consider humus as a specific compound). I suggest you read this

Gonzalez, J.M. 2009. Clay surface catalysis of formation of humic substances:

potential role of Maillard reactions. In: Laird, D.A., Cervini‐Silva, J., editors. CMS

Workshop Lectures, Carbon Stabilization by Clays in the Environment: Process and

Characterization Methods. The Clay Mineral Society. 16:51‐76 

and you also read this 

Li YR, Yu SR, Strong J, Wang H. 2012. Are the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus driven by the “ FeIII–FeII redox wheel ” in dynamic redox environments? J. Soils Sediments. 12, 683-693

What we found when we examined Terra Preta black carbon particles is the surface of the carbon is coated with Mn/O and FeO nanoparticles adn these are bonded together with large organic molecules.  These particles are both redox active and magnetic .

I formulate composites to enhance formation of organic macro-molecules.  it is not that difficult.  What is interesting is the minerals then protect the macromolecules resulting a their much greater recalcitrance.

Regards
Stephen

image.png


On Thu, Jul 29, 2021 at 4:26 AM Rick Wilson via groups.io <rick012=yahoo.com@groups.io> wrote:
Re mineral interactions, Does anyone have experience creating and testing a Birnessite (Manganese) composite?

Apparently this material catalyzes humification in natural sediments.

Rick




On Jul 25, 2021, at 4:23 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:

It really depends on the type of reactor and fooedstock.  I usually find that if the feedstock surface is slightly damp and I am using sawdust or chip  it will coat the surface.  If  fo straw or other materials that have wax coatigns then  mix with a little clay and water and  tumble in a mixer.  For large scale we use  Keenan small scale cement mixer

On Sat, Jul 24, 2021 at 10:48 AM Dale Hendricks <dale@...> wrote:
Thanks Kelpie and Stephen- and as far as adding rock dust to the feedstock before pyrolysis- does one make a “mud” slurry, dip the wood in- and then dry out and fire up? Thinking here on a small scale, thanks, Dale Hendricks 


On Jul 23, 2021, at 7:53 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:


Hi Kelpie

Try adding rock dust to your biomass and then pyrolysing.  Works  better than either by themselves because you have added a small layer of carbon molecules to the rock dust particles and these are great food for the microbes as well as acting as signalling molecules and changes in soil Eh.

Regards
Stephen

On Sat, Jul 24, 2021 at 2:20 AM Kelpie Wilson <kelpiew@...> wrote:
Thank you for this Laurent. 
Anecdotally, since I bought a literal ton of volcanic rock dust last year and started using it in my garden and compost, I have seen a huge improvement in my soil and the best plant growth ever. Things are greener, bigger, and I have less foliar fungal disease.
My garden is 40 raised beds worked by two families. We grow most of our own vegetables including potatoes, onions, carrots, parsnips, garlic, leeks, shallots, tomatoes, peppers, raspberries, grapes, figs, all kinds of salad greens, brassicas, peas, beans, herbs and tons and tons of flowers. 
I have been using biochar all along, of course, and it has greatly improved my soil, but when I tested it and found it was 30% carbon, I realized that I needed more minerals. 
Rock dust is really working for me. 

--
Email: kelpiew@...
Mobile: 541-218-9890
Time zone: Pacific Time, USA

Join the US Biochar Initiative North American Biochar Industry Directory. Go to https://biochar-us.org/get-usbi-directory-listing to get your free listing.






Re: Birnessite Composite

mikethewormguy
 

Rick,

This is interesting.   There are some newer research regarding this process.

Mike



Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone


Re: Kenya: "..Biochar really works miracles on our farms"

Laurent Chabanne
 

Vermicomposting kills pathogens not through heat, but through competition. That's an advantage of vermicomposting, for those who cannot or do not want to have a compost pile of at least 1 m3 and turn it (so that it gets hot enough).

This site provides a list of publications: http://www.vermicompostingtoilets.net/why-worms/.

I would obviously revise all procedures carefuly, and ideal contact a specialist before doing this, even though it is common in Thailand.

L


Re: Some interesting Carbon Sequestration Chemistry

d.michael.shafer@gmail.com
 

Thanks, Stephen,

For those of you without access to volcanic or any other kind of useful rock dust, you might try the following that has worked well for us at Warm Heart. We work largely with dried corn cobs. Before putting them in the TLUD, we sprinkle them with water in which we have rusted chunks of old iron. We then dust the damp cobs with bright orange clay powder and roll them until they look like corn dogs (for the Aermicans among you). The damp and dirty cobs are then left to dry in the sun for a day and pyrolysed. The resulting char gives every indication of working great, although we have no way of proving that it outperforms.


On Fri, Jul 23, 2021 at 5:53 PM Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:
Hi Kelpie

Try adding rock dust to your biomass and then pyrolysing.  Works  better than either by themselves because you have added a small layer of carbon molecules to the rock dust particles and these are great food for the microbes as well as acting as signalling molecules and changes in soil Eh.

Regards
Stephen

On Sat, Jul 24, 2021 at 2:20 AM Kelpie Wilson <kelpiew@...> wrote:
Thank you for this Laurent. 
Anecdotally, since I bought a literal ton of volcanic rock dust last year and started using it in my garden and compost, I have seen a huge improvement in my soil and the best plant growth ever. Things are greener, bigger, and I have less foliar fungal disease.
My garden is 40 raised beds worked by two families. We grow most of our own vegetables including potatoes, onions, carrots, parsnips, garlic, leeks, shallots, tomatoes, peppers, raspberries, grapes, figs, all kinds of salad greens, brassicas, peas, beans, herbs and tons and tons of flowers. 
I have been using biochar all along, of course, and it has greatly improved my soil, but when I tested it and found it was 30% carbon, I realized that I needed more minerals. 
Rock dust is really working for me. 

--
Email: kelpiew@...
Mobile: 541-218-9890
Time zone: Pacific Time, USA

Join the US Biochar Initiative North American Biochar Industry Directory. Go to https://biochar-us.org/get-usbi-directory-listing to get your free listing.


Re: Kenya: "..Biochar really works miracles on our farms"

d.michael.shafer@gmail.com
 

Hi, Laurent,

I am not actually there to direct or suggest and the actual leaders have never suggested using human 'night soil." It is, however, commonly used in Vietnam. There biochar is emptied into outhouses to manage flies and smell and the resulting mix added to fertilizer as it is made. The only concern with the practice is whether the stuff composts properly, meaning that it gets hot enough to kill any pathogens. This is a question for Paul Oliver, who is the expert.

As for leaves, we generally suggest that people compost leaves and char more solid (denser) stuff, simply to increase the yield. We routinely tell folks however, to enhance any compost they make with char to improve quality, hold nutrients and reduce GHG fluxes.

M

On Wed, Jul 28, 2021 at 1:12 PM Laurent Chabanne via groups.io <laurentbiochar=yahoo.fr@groups.io> wrote:
Michael,

did you consider the use of human manure as a feed? Not sure how much is available, plus regulations...
Pre-composted leaves should work and I imagine would be plentiful.
Or a mix of those.

L


Re: Kenya: "..Biochar really works miracles on our farms"

Laurent Chabanne
 

Michael,

did you consider the use of human manure as a feed? Not sure how much is available, plus regulations...
Pre-composted leaves should work and I imagine would be plentiful.
Or a mix of those.

L


Birnessite Composite

Rick Wilson
 

Re mineral interactions, Does anyone have experience creating and testing a Birnessite (Manganese) composite?

Apparently this material catalyzes humification in natural sediments.

Rick




On Jul 25, 2021, at 4:23 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:

It really depends on the type of reactor and fooedstock.  I usually find that if the feedstock surface is slightly damp and I am using sawdust or chip  it will coat the surface.  If  fo straw or other materials that have wax coatigns then  mix with a little clay and water and  tumble in a mixer.  For large scale we use  Keenan small scale cement mixer

On Sat, Jul 24, 2021 at 10:48 AM Dale Hendricks <dale@...> wrote:
Thanks Kelpie and Stephen- and as far as adding rock dust to the feedstock before pyrolysis- does one make a “mud” slurry, dip the wood in- and then dry out and fire up? Thinking here on a small scale, thanks, Dale Hendricks 


On Jul 23, 2021, at 7:53 PM, Stephen Joseph <joey.stephen@...> wrote:


Hi Kelpie

Try adding rock dust to your biomass and then pyrolysing.  Works  better than either by themselves because you have added a small layer of carbon molecules to the rock dust particles and these are great food for the microbes as well as acting as signalling molecules and changes in soil Eh.

Regards
Stephen

On Sat, Jul 24, 2021 at 2:20 AM Kelpie Wilson <kelpiew@...> wrote:
Thank you for this Laurent. 
Anecdotally, since I bought a literal ton of volcanic rock dust last year and started using it in my garden and compost, I have seen a huge improvement in my soil and the best plant growth ever. Things are greener, bigger, and I have less foliar fungal disease.
My garden is 40 raised beds worked by two families. We grow most of our own vegetables including potatoes, onions, carrots, parsnips, garlic, leeks, shallots, tomatoes, peppers, raspberries, grapes, figs, all kinds of salad greens, brassicas, peas, beans, herbs and tons and tons of flowers. 
I have been using biochar all along, of course, and it has greatly improved my soil, but when I tested it and found it was 30% carbon, I realized that I needed more minerals. 
Rock dust is really working for me. 

--
Email: kelpiew@...
Mobile: 541-218-9890
Time zone: Pacific Time, USA

Join the US Biochar Initiative North American Biochar Industry Directory. Go to https://biochar-us.org/get-usbi-directory-listing to get your free listing.





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