Date   

Re: [CDR] The opportunity cost of delaying climate action: Peatland restoration and resilience to climate change

Teel, Wayne
 

You raise an interesting point Ron and I cannot say that I have an answer for you.  Speculating about peat formation, it seems that it needs cool, anaerobic conditions to form and any recovery of a peat ecosystem will involve recreating the anaerobic conditions where it formed.  Biochar’s main benefits lie in nutrient retention and water holding capacity improvement in poor but often well-drained systems.  If you put biochar in a peat bog would it house the same bacteria that thrive in anaerobic conditions and give off things like methane (methanogenic bacteria) or even nitrous oxide?  I would want to test before using so I don’t cause more problems than I am attempting to solve.  I do agree with you that there should be more CDR research.  Peat does capture and store carbon for the long term if conditions are right.  The problem overall is that we humans burn too much to completion to extract energy and we have to learn how to burn a lot less.  Burning peat should not be an option.  So how do people that burn it find the right alternative energy source?  I have never heard of anyone making biochar from gorse.

 

Wayne

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Ron Larson
Sent: Sunday, September 26, 2021 5:45 PM
To: carbondioxideremoval@...
Cc: Biochar.groups.io <main@biochar.groups.io>
Subject: Re: [Biochar] [CDR] The opportunity cost of delaying climate action: Peatland restoration and resilience to climate change

 

CAUTION: This email originated from outside of JMU. Do not click links or open attachments unless you recognize the sender and know the content is safe.


Lists (adding biochar.io):

 

This non-fee article has little to do with CDR.

 

But I highly recommend it.  Thanks for the alert.   The title doesn’t show that this is mostly about a public opinion survey (in Scotland) on local expenditures for peatland recovery.  The survey methodology looks excellent,  And should be transferrable to CDR issues.

 

The same recent issue of Global Environmental Change has almost 30 articles - all but one is non-fee.  Should be more with a CDR flavor.

 

 

Biochar seems to be winning out uniformly over using peat in potting mixes (no mention of biochar in the article).  The article has nothing to do with potting mix formulations - about which there are hundreds of articles mentioning biochar..

 

I’ve searched for a half-hour for any article that might say that peatland restoration (this article’s topic) might go faster and better with some added biochar.  None. This would be in part for this list’s CDR purposes.  Anyone know?

 

Ron

 

 



On Sep 24, 2021, at 7:12 PM, Geoeng Info <infogeoeng@...> wrote:

 

 

The opportunity cost of delaying climate action: Peatland restoration and resilience to climate change



Klaus Glenk, Michela Faccioli, Julia Martin-Ortega, Christoph Schulze, Jacqueline Potts



Abstract

Ecosystem restoration and, in particular, peatland restoration, are considered a promising greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategy to move towards net zero emissions. To remain within acceptable limits for projected warming scenarios, inaction with respect to GHG mitigation in the short term implies a need for even larger removals of GHGs in the longer term, which can be conceptualized as a ‘mitigation debt’. This paper explores the economic implications of delaying GHG mitigation through ecosystem restoration using data of a large survey (N = 1377) that included a choice experiment to elicit the public’s willingness to pay (WTP) for peatland restoration in Scotland, UK. The valuation specifically considers the interaction between the timing of restoration action and long-term ecosystem resilience. We find that respondents have a substantial WTP for peatland restoration. Importantly, we find considerable benefits for early restoration action (up to £191 million annually in our case study), which is linked to an increased resilience of peatlands under future climate change. This demonstrates that delaying restoration and thus accumulating a mitigation debt has an important opportunity cost that substantially decreases the related economic benefits. Attitudes towards climate change and climate change beliefs are found to explain variation in the public’s WTP. Our research strengthens the economic argument for not delaying climate change mitigation through ecosystem restoration, demonstrating that the mitigation debt also translates into a welfare loss. To fully realise the potential benefits associated with immediate mitigation using peatland restoration, however, more needs to be understood about the mechanisms that facilitate large-scale implementation in practice.

 

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Re: [CDR] The opportunity cost of delaying climate action: Peatland restoration and resilience to climate change

Ron Larson
 

Lists (adding biochar.io):

This non-fee article has little to do with CDR.

But I highly recommend it.  Thanks for the alert.   The title doesn’t show that this is mostly about a public opinion survey (in Scotland) on local expenditures for peatland recovery.  The survey methodology looks excellent,  And should be transferrable to CDR issues.

The same recent issue of Global Environmental Change has almost 30 articles - all but one is non-fee.  Should be more with a CDR flavor.


Biochar seems to be winning out uniformly over using peat in potting mixes (no mention of biochar in the article).  The article has nothing to do with potting mix formulations - about which there are hundreds of articles mentioning biochar..

I’ve searched for a half-hour for any article that might say that peatland restoration (this article’s topic) might go faster and better with some added biochar.  None. This would be in part for this list’s CDR purposes.  Anyone know?

Ron



On Sep 24, 2021, at 7:12 PM, Geoeng Info <infogeoeng@...> wrote:


The opportunity cost of delaying climate action: Peatland restoration and resilience to climate change


Klaus Glenk, Michela Faccioli, Julia Martin-Ortega, Christoph Schulze, Jacqueline Potts

Abstract

Ecosystem restoration and, in particular, peatland restoration, are considered a promising greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategy to move towards net zero emissions. To remain within acceptable limits for projected warming scenarios, inaction with respect to GHG mitigation in the short term implies a need for even larger removals of GHGs in the longer term, which can be conceptualized as a ‘mitigation debt’. This paper explores the economic implications of delaying GHG mitigation through ecosystem restoration using data of a large survey (N = 1377) that included a choice experiment to elicit the public’s willingness to pay (WTP) for peatland restoration in Scotland, UK. The valuation specifically considers the interaction between the timing of restoration action and long-term ecosystem resilience. We find that respondents have a substantial WTP for peatland restoration. Importantly, we find considerable benefits for early restoration action (up to £191 million annually in our case study), which is linked to an increased resilience of peatlands under future climate change. This demonstrates that delaying restoration and thus accumulating a mitigation debt has an important opportunity cost that substantially decreases the related economic benefits. Attitudes towards climate change and climate change beliefs are found to explain variation in the public’s WTP. Our research strengthens the economic argument for not delaying climate change mitigation through ecosystem restoration, demonstrating that the mitigation debt also translates into a welfare loss. To fully realise the potential benefits associated with immediate mitigation using peatland restoration, however, more needs to be understood about the mechanisms that facilitate large-scale implementation in practice.


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Re: Citric Acid to Reduce Biochar pH?

mikethewormguy
 

Erica,

An idea to consider depending on your scale and timeframe is to do a LAB fermentation using silage microbes.  This fermenting produces lactic acid from molasses and water.

It is a straightforward process.  The largest volume we have done is 9000 gallons in a plastic tank.

The 3.5 pH ferment liquid can be used to buffer the char.

Mike


Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

mikethewormguy
 

Robert,

The real world effects of the biomass char's pH on crop growing/soil health will depend on in part regarding such issues as, 

why is the biomass chars being applied;

scale (tons per acre) and mode ( soil, seed, liquid, transplant) of application;  

quenching/washing of the char both at the time of production and overtime;

the type of biomass (wood, peach pit, almond shell, walnut shell, straw) used to make the biomass char;

the use of biomass chars, as an ingredient, along with such materials as gypsum, compost extract, or ???

the timing of application (i.e. within season and among season);

top dress or incorporation into the soil;

For example,  lets say a row crop growing puts out a blend of gypsum wheat straw char, and wood biomass char onto the soil in the fall after harvest.  The soil is rested for a few months before replanting.   The straw char and wood char will be different after spending a few months in the soil after winter rains.

Less biomass char, used more often, in a variety of ways, can be a win for a grower and the planet...wormism #332


my 2 cents,

Mike











Re: Citric Acid to Reduce Biochar pH?

Geoff Thomas
 

Erica, I have found that Vinegar is a good short term solution, but deeper alkalinity can be addressed by Ferrous Sulphate, - not too expensive for broad acre.

Cheaper ph measuring can be found at local Swimming Pool shops, they have the mass market so are very competitive.

Good to be on top of your pH...

Cheers,
Geoff Thomas, 
Malanda Australia.

On 22 Sep 2021, at 10:25 am, Erica Reinheimer <erica@...> wrote:

We are working with some high pH soils like over 7.7.
Has anyone but us tried hurrying the charging along by mixing in citric or other acids?

Seems to me the microbes we want are going to prefer a neutral to slightly acid pH, down from the pH 9 or 10 of fresh biochars.
Can we jump-start the process by reducing the pH (and eH) before we mix the biochar into the compost pile?


Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

Frank Strie
 

Yes Nando that makes sense, well explained.
When we flood quench our chars with either with rainwater (for clean char) or mostly with liquid manure slurry (PigJuice)  for soil application, the liquid dissolves a lot of the mineral ash and the pH of such Lyewater  is ~  pH 11 (
a strongly alkaline solution, especially of potassium hydroxide, used for washing or cleansing) . The Char is around PH8 but because the black carbon will not dissolve like the ash, the surface will be affected  by the microbial and fungal activities and water applications.
I have some nice photos from a local farmer where Clover has germinated over the winter in the 1m2 BigBags and the root system  and the shoot is amazing in water quenched 100% char and the roots clinking onto the char particles.
Cheers from a great spring 2021 under Down Under
Frank again

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Nando Breiter
Sent: Wednesday, September 22, 2021 7:59 AM
To: main@biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

Robert,

 

First, as pyrolysis intensity rises (higher temperature / longer duration) pH tends to increase. What may be more important is the oxygen content of the pyrolysis process. The higher the O2 content, the more ash (fully oxidized biomass) will be mixed into the char, which will drive the pH of the char up. Higher pyrolysis intensity biochars are often made with flaming pyrolysis, so I'm not sure whether it is the ash or the pyrolysis intensity that has the most influence on pH. Low temperature chars made in an oxygen free pyrolysis process should have a near neutral pH.

 

Secondly, you can reduce the particle size of the char to the minimum possible, which significantly increases the surface area exposed to the soil solution, and use less of it. In this way, the biochar will have less of an influence on the resulting pH of the soil solution, which is what matters.

 

If you start with a 1 cm cube of char, it will have an exposed surface area of 6 cm2. I know many people think the internal pore structure of a char particle adds a very significant amount of surface area in play. This may be true if the char is used as a filtration or remediation medium, where you want contaminants to be sorbed, but don't want or care if they can be released again. If we want our char particles to be optimized for cation exchange capacity, and indeed to be optimized for water holding / exchange capacity, the internal surface area within a char particle's pore structure may not be as available as many assume it is. Mineral and water storage capacity of biochar only help soil fertility if those minerals and that water can be easily released on demand. 

 

If that 1 cm cube of char is sliced in half in all three dimensions repeatedly until you have a bunch of 20 μm particles, the total surface area exposed to the soll solution will be over 3000 cm2 (calculated as tiny cubes), which is 500 times greater than the 6 cm2 exposed surface area you started with. And instead of having 1 piece of 1 cm char,  you'll have over 134 million particles of char that can be distributed in the soil to become micro-aggregates, rather than left as a single separate chunk. The exposed surface area of those 134 million char particles and their shallow pores will be much more available to hydrogen ions circulating in the soil solution, to participate in cation exchange, compared to the 1cm monolith. And those micron sized particles will easily form aggregates, which are the foundation of soil fertility and water holding capacity.

 

Of note is that the majority of biochar particles in areas of very fertile Terra Preta soils that have been studied are an average of ..... 20 microns in size, aggregated with clays and various minerals. Nikolaus Foidl encouraged me to try mixing powdered biochar with powdered clay and a bit of dolomite (which forms the cation bridge that binds the clay to the biochar, just as iron or calcium will form a cation bridge between clay and organic carbon in soils). Try a small sample, and what you get seems very much like rich, black, aggregate-forming soil. It's amazing to see the transformation first hand.

Of course if you take powdered biochar and spread it out in a field it will blow and or wash away. That's not the way to apply it. 

 

Third, wood vinegar can lower soil pH, but to be affordable, it would need to be selectively applied to the plant root zone, which can be done with drip irrigation. I'm speculating, but the soil pH may not need to be lowered in the entire root zone of a plant to be effective, just in enough of it that the plant can absorb the nutrients it needs from the part of the root zone with a lowered pH. Mineral nutrients are sometimes added to drip irrigation systems. And drip irrigation may be ideal in a warm place like Arizona. 

 

I've recently tried an experiment with biochar in a high pH soil mix, I think it was 8.5, I'd have to look. Definitely not ideal in terms of plant productivity, at least for salad. Now I'm wondering what would happen if I applied a wood vinegar dilution (0.5% tends to have a pH of about 4) to one side of the soil blocks these still miniature salad plants are in to try to lower the pH of only a portion of the root zone ... 

 

 


CarbonZero

+41 76 303 4477 cell / WhatsApp / Signal (https://signal.org/)

 

 

On Tue, Sep 21, 2021 at 8:01 PM Tom Miles <tmiles@...> wrote:

You should also check on studies of the use of biochars in alkaline soils. There are studies with reported benefits regardless of the pH. Concentrations of application also have an impact.

 

Tom

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Rick Wilson via groups.io
Sent: Tuesday, September 21, 2021 10:26 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

Robert, what I’ve seen with many pyrolysis chars is that most of the highest pH materials are in the fines.

Try screening out the fines.

 

Rick

 

On Sep 21, 2021, at 9:52 AM, Robert Masson <masson@...> wrote:

 

Good morning all,

I have two questions for the biochar community:

I’m writing an extension publication on Biochar for University of Arizona. We are testing many different things from treating fusarium wilt to water retention.

One limiting factor is pH, as our soils are alkaline 7.5-8.2 pH.

  1. Are there any techniques to make lower pH biochar?
  2. Does the pH stay after “priming” or does it go away?

 

Robert Masson

Assistant Agricultural Agent

Yuma County Cooperative Extension

919-889-0855

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of mikethewormguy via groups.io
Sent: Sunday, September 19, 2021 12:49 PM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

External Email

On Sun, Sep 19, 2021 at 11:30 AM, Jim Bartlett wrote:

Looks good Mike, how do you do your cold sterilization.  

 

jb

Sent from my mobile


On Sep 19, 2021, at 7:27 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

When we set up the mushroom mounds we also did a wood ash

cold sterilized straw/wood chip bed in a plastic tote.

 

We got home from a trip yesterday and the King Stropharia mushrooms were fruiting.

 

I did experiment with adding a diluted PA blend as a substrate soaking mid-season.

 

Was not sure how the mushrooms would produce in a plastic container.

 

 

 

Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone

 

<20210919_121049.jpg>


 Jim,

I use a 10% hardwood ash solution to soak the biomass for 24 hours.

Mike 

 


--
Nando Breiter
http://biochar.info
CarbonZero Sagl
Astano, Switzerland


Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

Rick Wilson
 

Attachment available until Oct 21, 2021
Nando,

My mental model of the role - value of biochar in California soils is that it improves air filled porosity and that the particle size is critical.  But its not necessarily the smaller the particle the better.

Many of the soils here are starved of oxygen, with air filled porosities below 1percent.  and water does not move well through them with infiltration rates far below one inch per hour.
Consider that the primary role of soils is to facilitate the exchange air and water, while holding onto nutrients.  Many soils here show salt crusted at the top from these soils pulling water to the surface.

It’s about putting a material into the soil that has a larger particle size than the soil itself, and that the irregular size of the particles helps open up the air porosity, and water can flow.

Take a look at this time lapse video of a California soil placed into a bin of water. The soil has the problem of very high capillary forces moving water up from the groundwater, instead of moving down. Air filled porosity and infiltration rates are both below 1 (volume percent, inch per hour, respectively) for this soil. 

We are planning on using biochar to see if we can open up the soil to mitigate this (extreme) effects.  

Rick

Click to Download
RWW_2860.MOV
21.2 MB

On Sep 21, 2021, at 2:59 PM, Nando Breiter <nando@...> wrote:

Robert,

First, as pyrolysis intensity rises (higher temperature / longer duration) pH tends to increase. What may be more important is the oxygen content of the pyrolysis process. The higher the O2 content, the more ash (fully oxidized biomass) will be mixed into the char, which will drive the pH of the char up. Higher pyrolysis intensity biochars are often made with flaming pyrolysis, so I'm not sure whether it is the ash or the pyrolysis intensity that has the most influence on pH. Low temperature chars made in an oxygen free pyrolysis process should have a near neutral pH.

Secondly, you can reduce the particle size of the char to the minimum possible, which significantly increases the surface area exposed to the soil solution, and use less of it. In this way, the biochar will have less of an influence on the resulting pH of the soil solution, which is what matters.

If you start with a 1 cm cube of char, it will have an exposed surface area of 6 cm2. I know many people think the internal pore structure of a char particle adds a very significant amount of surface area in play. This may be true if the char is used as a filtration or remediation medium, where you want contaminants to be sorbed, but don't want or care if they can be released again. If we want our char particles to be optimized for cation exchange capacity, and indeed to be optimized for water holding / exchange capacity, the internal surface area within a char particle's pore structure may not be as available as many assume it is. Mineral and water storage capacity of biochar only help soil fertility if those minerals and that water can be easily released on demand. 

If that 1 cm cube of char is sliced in half in all three dimensions repeatedly until you have a bunch of 20 μm particles, the total surface area exposed to the soll solution will be over 3000 cm2 (calculated as tiny cubes), which is 500 times greater than the 6 cm2 exposed surface area you started with. And instead of having 1 piece of 1 cm char,  you'll have over 134 million particles of char that can be distributed in the soil to become micro-aggregates, rather than left as a single separate chunk. The exposed surface area of those 134 million char particles and their shallow pores will be much more available to hydrogen ions circulating in the soil solution, to participate in cation exchange, compared to the 1cm monolith. And those micron sized particles will easily form aggregates, which are the foundation of soil fertility and water holding capacity.

Of note is that the majority of biochar particles in areas of very fertile Terra Preta soils that have been studied are an average of ..... 20 microns in size, aggregated with clays and various minerals. Nikolaus Foidl encouraged me to try mixing powdered biochar with powdered clay and a bit of dolomite (which forms the cation bridge that binds the clay to the biochar, just as iron or calcium will form a cation bridge between clay and organic carbon in soils). Try a small sample, and what you get seems very much like rich, black, aggregate-forming soil. It's amazing to see the transformation first hand.

Of course if you take powdered biochar and spread it out in a field it will blow and or wash away. That's not the way to apply it. 

Third, wood vinegar can lower soil pH, but to be affordable, it would need to be selectively applied to the plant root zone, which can be done with drip irrigation. I'm speculating, but the soil pH may not need to be lowered in the entire root zone of a plant to be effective, just in enough of it that the plant can absorb the nutrients it needs from the part of the root zone with a lowered pH. Mineral nutrients are sometimes added to drip irrigation systems. And drip irrigation may be ideal in a warm place like Arizona. 

I've recently tried an experiment with biochar in a high pH soil mix, I think it was 8.5, I'd have to look. Definitely not ideal in terms of plant productivity, at least for salad. Now I'm wondering what would happen if I applied a wood vinegar dilution (0.5% tends to have a pH of about 4) to one side of the soil blocks these still miniature salad plants are in to try to lower the pH of only a portion of the root zone ... 



CarbonZero
+41 76 303 4477 cell / WhatsApp / Signal (https://signal.org/)


On Tue, Sep 21, 2021 at 8:01 PM Tom Miles <tmiles@...> wrote:

You should also check on studies of the use of biochars in alkaline soils. There are studies with reported benefits regardless of the pH. Concentrations of application also have an impact.

 

Tom

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Rick Wilson via groups.io
Sent: Tuesday, September 21, 2021 10:26 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

Robert, what I’ve seen with many pyrolysis chars is that most of the highest pH materials are in the fines.

Try screening out the fines.

 

Rick



On Sep 21, 2021, at 9:52 AM, Robert Masson <masson@...> wrote:

 

Good morning all,

I have two questions for the biochar community:

I’m writing an extension publication on Biochar for University of Arizona. We are testing many different things from treating fusarium wilt to water retention.

One limiting factor is pH, as our soils are alkaline 7.5-8.2 pH.

  1. Are there any techniques to make lower pH biochar?
  2. Does the pH stay after “priming” or does it go away?

 

Robert Masson

Assistant Agricultural Agent

Yuma County Cooperative Extension

919-889-0855

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of mikethewormguy via groups.io
Sent: Sunday, September 19, 2021 12:49 PM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

External Email

On Sun, Sep 19, 2021 at 11:30 AM, Jim Bartlett wrote:

Looks good Mike, how do you do your cold sterilization.  

 

jb

Sent from my mobile


On Sep 19, 2021, at 7:27 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

When we set up the mushroom mounds we also did a wood ash

cold sterilized straw/wood chip bed in a plastic tote.

 

We got home from a trip yesterday and the King Stropharia mushrooms were fruiting.

 

I did experiment with adding a diluted PA blend as a substrate soaking mid-season.

 

Was not sure how the mushrooms would produce in a plastic container.

 

 

 

Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone

 

<20210919_121049.jpg>


 Jim,

I use a 10% hardwood ash solution to soak the biomass for 24 hours.

Mike 

 




--
Nando Breiter
http://biochar.info
CarbonZero Sagl
Astano, Switzerland


Re: Citric Acid to Reduce Biochar pH?

Rick Wilson
 

Erica,
The Cool Planet technology (sold to National Carbon) infused the biochar with acidic acid using a meat marinator to reduce the pH.

The treatment had a large impact improving plant growth. You can find descriptions of the technology in the patent literature via Google Scholar.

Rick



On Sep 21, 2021, at 5:25 PM, Erica Reinheimer <erica@...> wrote:

We are working with some high pH soils like over 7.7.
Has anyone but us tried hurrying the charging along by mixing in citric or other acids?

Seems to me the microbes we want are going to prefer a neutral to slightly acid pH, down from the pH 9 or 10 of fresh biochars.
Can we jump-start the process by reducing the pH (and eH) before we mix the biochar into the compost pile?


Citric Acid to Reduce Biochar pH?

 

We are working with some high pH soils like over 7.7.
Has anyone but us tried hurrying the charging along by mixing in citric or other acids?

Seems to me the microbes we want are going to prefer a neutral to slightly acid pH, down from the pH 9 or 10 of fresh biochars.
Can we jump-start the process by reducing the pH (and eH) before we mix the biochar into the compost pile?


Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

Nando Breiter
 

Robert,

First, as pyrolysis intensity rises (higher temperature / longer duration) pH tends to increase. What may be more important is the oxygen content of the pyrolysis process. The higher the O2 content, the more ash (fully oxidized biomass) will be mixed into the char, which will drive the pH of the char up. Higher pyrolysis intensity biochars are often made with flaming pyrolysis, so I'm not sure whether it is the ash or the pyrolysis intensity that has the most influence on pH. Low temperature chars made in an oxygen free pyrolysis process should have a near neutral pH.

Secondly, you can reduce the particle size of the char to the minimum possible, which significantly increases the surface area exposed to the soil solution, and use less of it. In this way, the biochar will have less of an influence on the resulting pH of the soil solution, which is what matters.

If you start with a 1 cm cube of char, it will have an exposed surface area of 6 cm2. I know many people think the internal pore structure of a char particle adds a very significant amount of surface area in play. This may be true if the char is used as a filtration or remediation medium, where you want contaminants to be sorbed, but don't want or care if they can be released again. If we want our char particles to be optimized for cation exchange capacity, and indeed to be optimized for water holding / exchange capacity, the internal surface area within a char particle's pore structure may not be as available as many assume it is. Mineral and water storage capacity of biochar only help soil fertility if those minerals and that water can be easily released on demand. 

If that 1 cm cube of char is sliced in half in all three dimensions repeatedly until you have a bunch of 20 μm particles, the total surface area exposed to the soll solution will be over 3000 cm2 (calculated as tiny cubes), which is 500 times greater than the 6 cm2 exposed surface area you started with. And instead of having 1 piece of 1 cm char,  you'll have over 134 million particles of char that can be distributed in the soil to become micro-aggregates, rather than left as a single separate chunk. The exposed surface area of those 134 million char particles and their shallow pores will be much more available to hydrogen ions circulating in the soil solution, to participate in cation exchange, compared to the 1cm monolith. And those micron sized particles will easily form aggregates, which are the foundation of soil fertility and water holding capacity.

Of note is that the majority of biochar particles in areas of very fertile Terra Preta soils that have been studied are an average of ..... 20 microns in size, aggregated with clays and various minerals. Nikolaus Foidl encouraged me to try mixing powdered biochar with powdered clay and a bit of dolomite (which forms the cation bridge that binds the clay to the biochar, just as iron or calcium will form a cation bridge between clay and organic carbon in soils). Try a small sample, and what you get seems very much like rich, black, aggregate-forming soil. It's amazing to see the transformation first hand.

Of course if you take powdered biochar and spread it out in a field it will blow and or wash away. That's not the way to apply it. 

Third, wood vinegar can lower soil pH, but to be affordable, it would need to be selectively applied to the plant root zone, which can be done with drip irrigation. I'm speculating, but the soil pH may not need to be lowered in the entire root zone of a plant to be effective, just in enough of it that the plant can absorb the nutrients it needs from the part of the root zone with a lowered pH. Mineral nutrients are sometimes added to drip irrigation systems. And drip irrigation may be ideal in a warm place like Arizona. 

I've recently tried an experiment with biochar in a high pH soil mix, I think it was 8.5, I'd have to look. Definitely not ideal in terms of plant productivity, at least for salad. Now I'm wondering what would happen if I applied a wood vinegar dilution (0.5% tends to have a pH of about 4) to one side of the soil blocks these still miniature salad plants are in to try to lower the pH of only a portion of the root zone ... 



CarbonZero
+41 76 303 4477 cell / WhatsApp / Signal (https://signal.org/)


On Tue, Sep 21, 2021 at 8:01 PM Tom Miles <tmiles@...> wrote:

You should also check on studies of the use of biochars in alkaline soils. There are studies with reported benefits regardless of the pH. Concentrations of application also have an impact.

 

Tom

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Rick Wilson via groups.io
Sent: Tuesday, September 21, 2021 10:26 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

Robert, what I’ve seen with many pyrolysis chars is that most of the highest pH materials are in the fines.

Try screening out the fines.

 

Rick



On Sep 21, 2021, at 9:52 AM, Robert Masson <masson@...> wrote:

 

Good morning all,

I have two questions for the biochar community:

I’m writing an extension publication on Biochar for University of Arizona. We are testing many different things from treating fusarium wilt to water retention.

One limiting factor is pH, as our soils are alkaline 7.5-8.2 pH.

  1. Are there any techniques to make lower pH biochar?
  2. Does the pH stay after “priming” or does it go away?

 

Robert Masson

Assistant Agricultural Agent

Yuma County Cooperative Extension

919-889-0855

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of mikethewormguy via groups.io
Sent: Sunday, September 19, 2021 12:49 PM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

External Email

On Sun, Sep 19, 2021 at 11:30 AM, Jim Bartlett wrote:

Looks good Mike, how do you do your cold sterilization.  

 

jb

Sent from my mobile


On Sep 19, 2021, at 7:27 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

When we set up the mushroom mounds we also did a wood ash

cold sterilized straw/wood chip bed in a plastic tote.

 

We got home from a trip yesterday and the King Stropharia mushrooms were fruiting.

 

I did experiment with adding a diluted PA blend as a substrate soaking mid-season.

 

Was not sure how the mushrooms would produce in a plastic container.

 

 

 

Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone

 

<20210919_121049.jpg>


 Jim,

I use a 10% hardwood ash solution to soak the biomass for 24 hours.

Mike 

 


--
Nando Breiter
http://biochar.info
CarbonZero Sagl
Astano, Switzerland


Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

mikethewormguy
 

Robert,

Who is the expected audience for your publication ?

Mike 

 


Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

Tom Miles
 

You should also check on studies of the use of biochars in alkaline soils. There are studies with reported benefits regardless of the pH. Concentrations of application also have an impact.

 

Tom

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Rick Wilson via groups.io
Sent: Tuesday, September 21, 2021 10:26 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

Robert, what I’ve seen with many pyrolysis chars is that most of the highest pH materials are in the fines.

Try screening out the fines.

 

Rick



On Sep 21, 2021, at 9:52 AM, Robert Masson <masson@...> wrote:

 

Good morning all,

I have two questions for the biochar community:

I’m writing an extension publication on Biochar for University of Arizona. We are testing many different things from treating fusarium wilt to water retention.

One limiting factor is pH, as our soils are alkaline 7.5-8.2 pH.

  1. Are there any techniques to make lower pH biochar?
  2. Does the pH stay after “priming” or does it go away?

 

Robert Masson

Assistant Agricultural Agent

Yuma County Cooperative Extension

919-889-0855

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of mikethewormguy via groups.io
Sent: Sunday, September 19, 2021 12:49 PM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

External Email

On Sun, Sep 19, 2021 at 11:30 AM, Jim Bartlett wrote:

Looks good Mike, how do you do your cold sterilization.  

 

jb

Sent from my mobile


On Sep 19, 2021, at 7:27 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

When we set up the mushroom mounds we also did a wood ash

cold sterilized straw/wood chip bed in a plastic tote.

 

We got home from a trip yesterday and the King Stropharia mushrooms were fruiting.

 

I did experiment with adding a diluted PA blend as a substrate soaking mid-season.

 

Was not sure how the mushrooms would produce in a plastic container.

 

 

 

Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone

 

<20210919_121049.jpg>


 Jim,

I use a 10% hardwood ash solution to soak the biomass for 24 hours.

Mike 

 


Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

Rick Wilson
 

Robert, what I’ve seen with many pyrolysis chars is that most of the highest pH materials are in the fines.
Try screening out the fines.

Rick

On Sep 21, 2021, at 9:52 AM, Robert Masson <masson@...> wrote:

Good morning all,
I have two questions for the biochar community:
I’m writing an extension publication on Biochar for University of Arizona. We are testing many different things from treating fusarium wilt to water retention.
One limiting factor is pH, as our soils are alkaline 7.5-8.2 pH.
  1. Are there any techniques to make lower pH biochar?
  2. Does the pH stay after “priming” or does it go away?
 
Robert Masson
Assistant Agricultural Agent
Yuma County Cooperative Extension
919-889-0855
 
From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of mikethewormguy via groups.io
Sent: Sunday, September 19, 2021 12:49 PM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update
 

External Email

On Sun, Sep 19, 2021 at 11:30 AM, Jim Bartlett wrote:
Looks good Mike, how do you do your cold sterilization.  
 

jb

Sent from my mobile


On Sep 19, 2021, at 7:27 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

When we set up the mushroom mounds we also did a wood ash
cold sterilized straw/wood chip bed in a plastic tote.
 
We got home from a trip yesterday and the King Stropharia mushrooms were fruiting.
 
I did experiment with adding a diluted PA blend as a substrate soaking mid-season.
 
Was not sure how the mushrooms would produce in a plastic container.
 
 
 
Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone
 
<20210919_121049.jpg>

 Jim,

I use a 10% hardwood ash solution to soak the biomass for 24 hours.

Mike 



Re: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

Robert Masson
 

Good morning all,

I have two questions for the biochar community:

I’m writing an extension publication on Biochar for University of Arizona. We are testing many different things from treating fusarium wilt to water retention.

One limiting factor is pH, as our soils are alkaline 7.5-8.2 pH.

  1. Are there any techniques to make lower pH biochar?
  2. Does the pH stay after “priming” or does it go away?

 

Robert Masson

Assistant Agricultural Agent

Yuma County Cooperative Extension

919-889-0855

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of mikethewormguy via groups.io
Sent: Sunday, September 19, 2021 12:49 PM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: [EXT]Re: [Biochar] Mushroom update

 

External Email

On Sun, Sep 19, 2021 at 11:30 AM, Jim Bartlett wrote:

Looks good Mike, how do you do your cold sterilization. 

 

jb

Sent from my mobile


On Sep 19, 2021, at 7:27 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

When we set up the mushroom mounds we also did a wood ash

cold sterilized straw/wood chip bed in a plastic tote.

 

We got home from a trip yesterday and the King Stropharia mushrooms were fruiting.

 

I did experiment with adding a diluted PA blend as a substrate soaking mid-season.

 

Was not sure how the mushrooms would produce in a plastic container.

 

 

 

Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone

 

<20210919_121049.jpg>


 Jim,

I use a 10% hardwood ash solution to soak the biomass for 24 hours.

Mike


Re: Mushroom update

mikethewormguy
 

On Sun, Sep 19, 2021 at 11:30 AM, Jim Bartlett wrote:
Looks good Mike, how do you do your cold sterilization. 
 
jb

Sent from my mobile

On Sep 19, 2021, at 7:27 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:

When we set up the mushroom mounds we also did a wood ash
cold sterilized straw/wood chip bed in a plastic tote.
 
We got home from a trip yesterday and the King Stropharia mushrooms were fruiting.
 
I did experiment with adding a diluted PA blend as a substrate soaking mid-season.
 
Was not sure how the mushrooms would produce in a plastic container.
 
 
 
Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone
 
<20210919_121049.jpg>

 Jim,

I use a 10% hardwood ash solution to soak the biomass for 24 hours.

Mike


Re: Mushroom update

Jim Bartlett
 

Looks good Mike, how do you do your cold sterilization. 

jb

Sent from my mobile

On Sep 19, 2021, at 7:27 AM, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:


When we set up the mushroom mounds we also did a wood ash
cold sterilized straw/wood chip bed in a plastic tote.

We got home from a trip yesterday and the King Stropharia mushrooms were fruiting.

I did experiment with adding a diluted PA blend as a substrate soaking mid-season.

Was not sure how the mushrooms would produce in a plastic container.



Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone

<20210919_121049.jpg>


Mushroom update

mikethewormguy
 

When we set up the mushroom mounds we also did a wood ash
cold sterilized straw/wood chip bed in a plastic tote.

We got home from a trip yesterday and the King Stropharia mushrooms were fruiting.

I did experiment with adding a diluted PA blend as a substrate soaking mid-season.

Was not sure how the mushrooms would produce in a plastic container.



Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone


[CDR] EU plans certification scheme for carbon dioxide removals

Ron Larson
 

List:

This 2-day old document (and video) is important to all looking at CDR policies - but especially in Europe.


The video can only be entered at this URL - with a link very near the bottom.

I am pretty sure all five European CDR experts know about biochar - but the term “biochar” is never mentioned - although it presumably could with the terms forest and soils mentioned often,

I conclude that biochar should easily meet all the rules being discussed - but there can be confusion because biochar fills both mitigation and CDR roles.  So biochar could be a special and more valuable case

Ron


Begin forwarded message:

From: Geoeng Info <infogeoeng@...>
Subject: [CDR] EU plans certification scheme for carbon dioxide removals
Date: September 16, 2021 at 3:00:00 PM MDT


<SNIP>.  Better to see the original at the text link given above.


--
You received this message because you are subscribed to the Google Groups "Carbon Dioxide Removal" group.
To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an email to CarbonDioxideRemoval+unsubscribe@....
To view this discussion on the web visit https://groups.google.com/d/msgid/CarbonDioxideRemoval/CAKSzgpYVWyJmzpwY6V4634YzCCtPFnHLN5Q8Y9bCturCjLBLHw%40mail.gmail.com.


Re: [Stoves] Contact info of Crista Roth, please.

Bruno M.
 

Christa Roth (bioenergylist) <stoves@...>
-----------
CCA :

Address

An der Gruengesweide 6

Eschborn, 65760

Primary Point of Contact

Name: Mr. Christa Roth

Title:

Email: christa-roth@...

Phone: 49 6196 52 56 451


===========================================
Op 8-9-2021 om 14:39 schreef Anderson, Paul:

To all,

 

If you have the email address of Crista Roth, please send it to my email address    psanders@...   

 

If this message reached the Stove listserv, please let me know (direct to me) because I am not able to receive the Stoves messages for a long long time.

 

Thanks,

 

Paul

 

Doc / Dr TLUD / Paul S. Anderson, PhD --- Website:   www.drtlud.com

         Email:  psanders@...       Skype:   paultlud

         Phone:  Office: 309-452-7072    Mobile & WhatsApp: 309-531-4434

Exec. Dir. of Juntos Energy Solutions NFP    Go to: www.JuntosNFP.org 

Inventor of RoCC kilns and author of Biochar white paper :  See  www.woodgas.energy/resources  

Author of “A Capitalist Carol” (free digital copies at www.capitalism21.org)

         with pages 88 – 94 about solving the world crisis for clean cookstoves.

 


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Stoves mailing list

to Send a Message to the list, use the email address
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to UNSUBSCRIBE or Change your List Settings use the web page
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for more Biomass Cooking Stoves,  News and Information see our web site:
http://stoves.bioenergylists.org/



USBI September 2021 News

Tom Miles
 

USBI Newsletter September 2021
 US Biochar Initiative Newsletter
September 2021
Having trouble viewing this newsletter?
Choose 'display all images' (at top of email) and 'view entire
message' (at bottom of email) or download file.
CARBON, ENERGY, SOIL HEALTH, AND CLIMATE RESILIENCE

by Tom Miles, Executive Director

Biochar producers provide firm, reliable, renewable energy and durable carbon for sequestration and soil health. Carbon offsets, carbon removal credits, carbon incentives, like Low Carbon Fuel Standards, and good prices for renewable energy help to build up cash flow which should lead to increased production of lower cost, fit-for-purpose, biochar-based products. Developers need these revenues to finance plants, increase biochar production, and lower costs. Affordable biochar-based products help build markets while providing essential environmental services. Support legislation in your area that will place fair values on energy, carbon, soil health, and climate resilience. You can help. Comment to EPA on "Potential Future Regulation Addressing Pyrolysis and Gasification Units" which may affect our industry. Also see the biochar educator opportunity in this newsletter who will help us to inform policy makers.
Did you know that most of our readers have not yet made a contribution to our USBI all-volunteer non-profit? If you value having free access to reliable info that helps you grow your business, please make today your day to click on "Take Action"!
HOW BIOCHAR & CARBON CREDITS WORK

by Jeff Waldon, Managing Partner, Restoration Bioproducts LLC

The world of monetizing climate benefits (avoided emissions, carbon sequestration, methane capture, etc.) is exploding right now. This trend is being driven by the stark reality of climate-related catastrophes around the world. 

The private sector, led by multi-national companies, has embraced the need to reduce their emissions to meet climate change commitments to satisfy their customers and shareholders, and while it’s preferable for each company to actually reduce their own emissions, it’s not always possible so some sort of offset strategy is needed. There are multiple standards organizations and dozens of creditable strategies focused on avoided emissions and/or carbon sequestration. Regardless of the type of process involved, each project is standardized to metric tons of CO2 equivalents.

The Crediting Process
The general process for all crediting strategies, termed methodologies, is to compare a baseline emissions or
sequestration pattern with a proposed new amount of emissions or sequestration. The difference between the two, calculated over time, is the
basis upon which the credits are awarded. Once awarded, usually with some sort of reserve set aside for insurance purposes, those credits can be recorded into a public registry for
Biochar Credits Are Promising
More pertinent to biochar, two current and soon several more standards bodies-registries-methodologies will be available to provide an opportunity to monetize the carbon sequestration value of biochar application in soils, building materials, filtration, and other applications that result in long term storage. At present, two groups in Europe, Puro.Earth and CarbonFuture have published methodologies and established registries to sell biochar-based credits. Both are relatively simple, rely on third-party audits of the biochar production process, and have reasonably low overhead costs. 

Advertised prices for biochar credits are very high relative to other carbon markets. While advertised prices are often higher than actual sales prices, there still appears to be a premium in the market for the relatively simple concept of direct carbon sequestration. Since a metric ton of biochar with an 80% carbon content equates to 2.9 tons of CO2, and current prices are exceeding $50/ton, the total value to biochar producers is potentially substantial.

The Role of Standards Organizations
Once registering biochar credits, they must be validated by a standards organization before they can be sold. Two important standards organizations are in the process of developing methodologies. Verra is the steward of the Verified Carbon Standard, and they have submitted a methodology for
public comment. Verra endorsement is an important step
Jeff Waldon is Managing Partner, Restoration
Bioproducts LLC and USBI Board Treasurer
forward for the wider adoption of biochar-based carbon offsets. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has also announced the formation of a committee to develop a methodology. That step is important since the CARB system is a regulatory program that many other regulatory programs follow closely. 
 
The future of carbon finance for biochar production and use looks very bright, and every biochar producer should pay close attention to market development.


Our Biochar Learning Center database on the USBI website continues to grow! Check out the most current and useful articles, websites, videos and other resources.

USBI YouTube Channel
Find free educational videos, books, podcasts, and more.
This webinar is hosted by two leading biochar researchers, Dr. David Laird, N-Sense Inc. President and Professor Emeritus Iowa State University, and Dr. Jim Amonette, of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Washington State University. Learn what biochar is, how it
works, and what needs to happen for biochar to reach its potential in an integrated biochar-bioenergy industry. The September 10 webinar was sponsored by the Congressional Soils Caucus and hosted by the Soil Science Society of America.
ANNOUNCEMENTS AND OPPORTUNITIES
----- Bid Opportunity for Biochar Educator ----
The Nebraska Forest Service and USBI are seeking a contractor to prepare educational documents that address barriers to biochar commercialization and adoption in seven key market sectors. The position will be funded through our recently awarded USFS Wood Innovations Grant (WIG) with the goal of providing more specific biochar market development and producer and end-user education. Download the RFP here.
 
The ideal bidder will have knowledge of the biochar industry and a strong science communications background. He or she will work with the USBI Education Committee and sector-specific steering committees to develop: 

  • Fact Sheets: Introductory and topic overview information.

  • Roadmaps: Strategic outlines of barriers to developing a market sector. Roadmaps what biochar producers and/or end-users (markets) need to scale-up.

  • Use Guidelines: Could take the form of case studies, including best uses, application methods, rates, frequency, seasonality, and ideal biochar characteristics. 

Bids will be evaluated in terms of their responsiveness to the RFP and proposed outcomes and must be received by USBI Education Committee Chair Heather Nobert by September 30, 2021. Please enter Biochar Educator in the subject line.
ROLLING OUT THE GREEN CARPET FOR
NEW USBI DIRECTORY MEMBERS

A big USBI directory welcome goes out to carbon credit consultancy, Ipsum Advisors LLC in Del Marva, CA and CO2 removal certificates buyer, Vergent Power Solutions in Woburn, MA.

We hope your listing brings you lots of new connections!

Add your USBI listing - HERE. After review, your listing will be published in the USBI Biochar Directory.
BIOCHAR NEWSLINKS
Opinion: One Critical Step to Limit Warming to 1.5 Degrees. Chuck Hassebrook, leader of the Biochar Policy Project of the National Center for Appropriate Technology, says: “The IPPC has made clear that carbon removal is imperative. There is now a window of opportunity to advance federal policy to address climate. We must seize the opportunity to advance biochar as the most promising agricultural strategy for carbon sequestration and a critical step to limit warming to 1.5 degrees.”
 
Congress Must Act to Save our Food from Climate Extremes.  Benjamin Z. Houlton, Dean of Cornell University’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, calls on Congress to increase agriculture research funding to address climate change and food security. One promising avenue is to use biochar to increase carbon sequestration in soils and improve crop yields.
Cashing in on Cow Manure. Cornell University researchers are growing great crops with charred cow manure, showing how saving nitrogen by charring dairy waste can save farmers money: The available dairy waste in New York, if pyrolyzed, is equivalent to 11,732 to 42,232 metric tons of nitrogen, valued at $6 million to $21.5 million annually. This can satisfy 23% to 82% of New York State’s need for nitrogen fertilizer.
« Ithaca's Bio365 LLC soil scientist Margaret Ball tends to plants grown in biochar made from manure.
Washington State Wine Commission Bets on Biochar for Sustainability. Research priorities for wine grape growers and vintners will focus on sustainability issues from discovering ways for wineries to reduce winery wastewater and waste to studying biochar for optimal vine and soil health. The commission will launch a sustainable certification program in 2022.
Can This Ancient Process Help Bring New Hope? Listen to this BBC podcast from biochar pioneer and USBI board member Josiah Hunt. Hunt supplies biochar to customers across California and says that, along with capturing carbon and improving the soils, his company is removing liability wood to reduce forest fires and helping to produce green electricity. 
Forest to Farm Group Finds Hope Against Wildfires with Biochar. Through nonprofit C6 Forest to Farm in Washington, the McCoys plan to accelerate forest restoration by creating a market for small-diameter trees that are a symptom of unhealthy forests and fuel for giant fires. They’ll make biochar from trees cut down during forest thinning to help reduce emissions created by raging wildfires and burning slash piles.
C6 Forest to Farm board members monitor their small-scale » research pyrolyzer.
Biochar Policy Project Aims to Scale Up Rural Climate Solution. Montana watershed landowners, in partnership with The Nature Conservancy, recently received a $288,000 grant from the State of Montana Forest Action Plan to reduce the risk of severe wildfire around rural communities. About 1400 tons of unmarketable materials such as tree tops, limbs and small diameter trees, which traditionally would have been burned on site, will be turned into biochar through a pilot project using various technologies.
« Dave Atkins (left) joins other forest landowners in Montana’s Blackfoot Valley as part of an alliance to make biochar from forest debris.
GoBiochar: Climate Resilience and Restoration Using Biochar. GoBiochar’s John Webster views biochar as a tool through which people can actually get their hands on change. "Biochar checks every box and does it for the right reasons," he says. In Utah, he is building a successful biochar business by telling stories —“We have to begin telling the story of using the resources we already have above ground.” Webster wants to reach the generations who will have to deal with the serious repercussions of climate change. “Instead of shouting in the wind about climate frustrations, they can get their hands on things and know that they are making a real impact."
GoBiochar's John Webster of gets his hands on a climate solution - biochar.
Biochar Displaces Paper as Use for Wood Chips. Standard Biocarbon is starting up operations to make biochar at a former paper mill in Maine. The company will convert 12,000 tons of wood chips into 3,000 tons per year of biochar. “There’s more demand for carbon removals now than there is for paper,” said CEO Frederick Horton.
 
Pyrolysis and PFAS. Water and Wastes Digest offers this overview of PFAS in biosolids. Heat can destroy these persistent organic pollutants, but high temperatures are a must, making high temperature gasification the most likely method to generate useful, clean biochar from biosolids. 
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