Date   

Re: [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

Frank Strie
 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Paul S Anderson
Sent: Monday, October 18, 2021 3:44 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [Biochar] [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

 

Frank,

 

Please be more specific about where to find that “valuable resource”   Can you give an  direct link inside of the EBI website.

 

Thanks,

 

Paul

 

Doc / Dr TLUD / Paul S. Anderson, PhD --- Website:   www.drtlud.com

         Email:  psanders@...       Skype:   paultlud

         Phone:  Office: 309-452-7072    Mobile & WhatsApp: 309-531-4434

Exec. Dir. of Juntos Energy Solutions NFP    Go to: www.JuntosNFP.org 

Inventor of RoCC kilns and author of Biochar white paper :  See  www.woodgas.energy/resources  

Author of “A Capitalist Carol” (free digital copies at www.capitalism21.org)

         with pages 88 – 94 about solving the world crisis for clean cookstoves.

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Frank Strie via groups.io
Sent: Saturday, October 16, 2021 9:16 PM
To: main@biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [Biochar] [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

 

[This message came from an external source. If suspicious, report to abuse@...]

Our colleagues of the EBI  = European Biochar Industry Consortium have published a valuable resource about PyCCS Pyrogenic Carbon Capture and Sequestration-Storage-Sink.

You can see it on the EBI website.

 

 

On Sun, 17 Oct. 2021, 12:51 am Paul S Anderson, <psanders@...> wrote:

John,

 

Thanks for that useful “Plain Language Summary,”   The linked full article says that there is not much benefit of growing more trees (over generalized statement, but if this shoe fits, then wear it.)   So AR (afforestation / reforestation) is not doing much CDR because it lacks STORAGE, which is S.    We need CDRS, emphasizing that storage is also accomplished. 

 

The bright side of the AR as being  only short term (or almost neutral) is that there is a developed and economical / sustainable way to accomplish the storage of 50% of that AR removal.   And that way is called Biochar.   Biochar removes no CO2, but it stores CO2e for looooong periods.

 

I have a document (and a short video) about this, entitled “Understanding Carbon Dioxide Removal and Storage (CDRS)”    www.woodgas.energy/resources        And here are two graphics from page 12.

 

 

 

 

Please note that our standard naming of CDR technologies have different “interpretations / understandings” about the various words, often using the same words to define other words:

Capture                to remove CO2 from the atmosphere

Storage                to hold LONG TERM the removed CO2   

Removal              BOTH having captured and stored the CO2

AR                          Very weak on storage

CCS                        carbon capture and storage (but is specifically applied to BECCS, not to all CCS)

CCUS                     just add in the word “use” and that somehow makes it different

DAC                       ONLY the capture   (deep geologic storage, etc is NOT included in that designation))

DACCS                  BOTH the capture and storage, although storage issues are major)

Biochar                 ALL about storage;  totally dependent on AR and crop growth for the removal)

CDR                        Usually understood to mean both capture and storage, but CCS name is taken already.

CDRS                     Just adding the “S” to emphasize Storage that some CDR (AR and DAC) do not accomplish.

 

In other words, our terminology is sloppy.  Its usage and dependent on “general understanding by the experts.”   Which means that the general public could be easily confused.   

 

PLEASE read the document.   PLAEASE use it, or suggest changes and we can change it together.

 

[Note on a possible change:  I believe that EW and  CCO “carbon concretions in  oceans – including biological” should be separated from the Engineered capture of DAC and CCE.  ]

 

Paul

 

Doc / Dr TLUD / Paul S. Anderson, PhD --- Website:   www.drtlud.com

         Email:  psanders@...       Skype:   paultlud

         Phone:  Office: 309-452-7072    Mobile & WhatsApp: 309-531-4434

Exec. Dir. of Juntos Energy Solutions NFP    Go to: www.JuntosNFP.org 

Inventor of RoCC kilns and author of Biochar white paper :  See  www.woodgas.energy/resources  

Author of “A Capitalist Carol” (free digital copies at www.capitalism21.org)

         with pages 88 – 94 about solving the world crisis for clean cookstoves.

 

From: carbondioxideremoval@... <carbondioxideremoval@...> On Behalf Of John Crusius
Sent: Friday, October 15, 2021 6:14 PM
To: Carbon Dioxide Removal <CarbonDioxideRemoval@...>
Subject: [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

 

[This message came from an external source. If suspicious, report to abuse@...]

From this month's GRL, accessible via open access

Plain Language Summary

In the past decades, elevating CO2 concentration and rising temperature have promoted the photosynthesis of European vegetation, thus increasing the greenness of vegetation. However, whether these processes could promote the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to absorb CO2 still lacks systematic evaluation. By using a variety of advanced vegetation dynamic models, we found that enhanced vegetation growth which absorbed more CO2, but also an enhancement of ecosystem respiration which released more CO2 in Europe during 2000–2018. The offsetting effect of these two processes has resulted in non-significant trend in the European net CO2 uptake. In addition, the extremely high temperature events (heatwaves) frequently occurred in Europe in recent years, which have caused vegetation damage or even death, triggered forest fires, etc., thereby severely inhibited the carbon sink capacity of the terrestrial ecosystem.

 

John

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Garden Pallet

mikethewormguy
 

Good Day !

This season we set up a garden pallet (See picture#1). made from an used IBC tote frame. The black walls are composed of 2 ft tall wire mesh with weed barrier attached to it.

This season we grew Brussel Sprouts in the garden pallet. We used clay pot irrigation. We placed, around the pot, a blend of vermicompost, mineral powders, bone char, wood char, and wheat straw char.  We did not amend the planting holes.

Picture #2 is a snapshot of the root balls of some of the brussel sprouts grown in the garden pallet. The root balls show a nice mix of primary and secondary roots.

The garden pallet is more a applicable to an urban environment.  Where it allows one to grow on cement and move the garden pallet around if you have a pallet jack.

The growing media used is a 50/50 blend of rice hull/leaf compost. We got the rice hulls from the rice being grown on the farm.  Who knew you could rice in Wisconsin USA.

The use of the clay pot irrigation allows for watering every 2-4 weeks, which is a big time/labor savings.

The biomass char placed around the outside of the Clay pot keeps this area moist subsurface.

We will be planting garlic in the garden pallet soon to overwinter till next March. We took the clay pot out for this planting.

This is an interesting approach for using various biomass chars within an integrated system to grow great vegetables.

my 2 cents,

Mike




 



Sent from my Verizon, Samsung Galaxy smartphone


Re: [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

Paul S Anderson
 

Frank,

 

Please be more specific about where to find that “valuable resource”   Can you give an  direct link inside of the EBI website.

 

Thanks,

 

Paul

 

Doc / Dr TLUD / Paul S. Anderson, PhD --- Website:   www.drtlud.com

         Email:  psanders@...       Skype:   paultlud

         Phone:  Office: 309-452-7072    Mobile & WhatsApp: 309-531-4434

Exec. Dir. of Juntos Energy Solutions NFP    Go to: www.JuntosNFP.org 

Inventor of RoCC kilns and author of Biochar white paper :  See  www.woodgas.energy/resources  

Author of “A Capitalist Carol” (free digital copies at www.capitalism21.org)

         with pages 88 – 94 about solving the world crisis for clean cookstoves.

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Frank Strie via groups.io
Sent: Saturday, October 16, 2021 9:16 PM
To: main@biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [Biochar] [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

 

[This message came from an external source. If suspicious, report to abuse@...]

Our colleagues of the EBI  = European Biochar Industry Consortium have published a valuable resource about PyCCS Pyrogenic Carbon Capture and Sequestration-Storage-Sink.

You can see it on the EBI website.

 

 

On Sun, 17 Oct. 2021, 12:51 am Paul S Anderson, <psanders@...> wrote:

John,

 

Thanks for that useful “Plain Language Summary,”   The linked full article says that there is not much benefit of growing more trees (over generalized statement, but if this shoe fits, then wear it.)   So AR (afforestation / reforestation) is not doing much CDR because it lacks STORAGE, which is S.    We need CDRS, emphasizing that storage is also accomplished. 

 

The bright side of the AR as being  only short term (or almost neutral) is that there is a developed and economical / sustainable way to accomplish the storage of 50% of that AR removal.   And that way is called Biochar.   Biochar removes no CO2, but it stores CO2e for looooong periods.

 

I have a document (and a short video) about this, entitled “Understanding Carbon Dioxide Removal and Storage (CDRS)”    www.woodgas.energy/resources        And here are two graphics from page 12.

 

 

 

 

Please note that our standard naming of CDR technologies have different “interpretations / understandings” about the various words, often using the same words to define other words:

Capture                to remove CO2 from the atmosphere

Storage                to hold LONG TERM the removed CO2   

Removal              BOTH having captured and stored the CO2

AR                          Very weak on storage

CCS                        carbon capture and storage (but is specifically applied to BECCS, not to all CCS)

CCUS                     just add in the word “use” and that somehow makes it different

DAC                       ONLY the capture   (deep geologic storage, etc is NOT included in that designation))

DACCS                  BOTH the capture and storage, although storage issues are major)

Biochar                 ALL about storage;  totally dependent on AR and crop growth for the removal)

CDR                        Usually understood to mean both capture and storage, but CCS name is taken already.

CDRS                     Just adding the “S” to emphasize Storage that some CDR (AR and DAC) do not accomplish.

 

In other words, our terminology is sloppy.  Its usage and dependent on “general understanding by the experts.”   Which means that the general public could be easily confused.   

 

PLEASE read the document.   PLAEASE use it, or suggest changes and we can change it together.

 

[Note on a possible change:  I believe that EW and  CCO “carbon concretions in  oceans – including biological” should be separated from the Engineered capture of DAC and CCE.  ]

 

Paul

 

Doc / Dr TLUD / Paul S. Anderson, PhD --- Website:   www.drtlud.com

         Email:  psanders@...       Skype:   paultlud

         Phone:  Office: 309-452-7072    Mobile & WhatsApp: 309-531-4434

Exec. Dir. of Juntos Energy Solutions NFP    Go to: www.JuntosNFP.org 

Inventor of RoCC kilns and author of Biochar white paper :  See  www.woodgas.energy/resources  

Author of “A Capitalist Carol” (free digital copies at www.capitalism21.org)

         with pages 88 – 94 about solving the world crisis for clean cookstoves.

 

From: carbondioxideremoval@... <carbondioxideremoval@...> On Behalf Of John Crusius
Sent: Friday, October 15, 2021 6:14 PM
To: Carbon Dioxide Removal <CarbonDioxideRemoval@...>
Subject: [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

 

[This message came from an external source. If suspicious, report to abuse@...]

From this month's GRL, accessible via open access

Plain Language Summary

In the past decades, elevating CO2 concentration and rising temperature have promoted the photosynthesis of European vegetation, thus increasing the greenness of vegetation. However, whether these processes could promote the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to absorb CO2 still lacks systematic evaluation. By using a variety of advanced vegetation dynamic models, we found that enhanced vegetation growth which absorbed more CO2, but also an enhancement of ecosystem respiration which released more CO2 in Europe during 2000–2018. The offsetting effect of these two processes has resulted in non-significant trend in the European net CO2 uptake. In addition, the extremely high temperature events (heatwaves) frequently occurred in Europe in recent years, which have caused vegetation damage or even death, triggered forest fires, etc., thereby severely inhibited the carbon sink capacity of the terrestrial ecosystem.

 

John

--
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Re: [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

Frank Strie
 

Our colleagues of the EBI  = European Biochar Industry Consortium have published a valuable resource about PyCCS Pyrogenic Carbon Capture and Sequestration-Storage-Sink.
You can see it on the EBI website.


On Sun, 17 Oct. 2021, 12:51 am Paul S Anderson, <psanders@...> wrote:

John,

 

Thanks for that useful “Plain Language Summary,”   The linked full article says that there is not much benefit of growing more trees (over generalized statement, but if this shoe fits, then wear it.)   So AR (afforestation / reforestation) is not doing much CDR because it lacks STORAGE, which is S.    We need CDRS, emphasizing that storage is also accomplished. 

 

The bright side of the AR as being  only short term (or almost neutral) is that there is a developed and economical / sustainable way to accomplish the storage of 50% of that AR removal.   And that way is called Biochar.   Biochar removes no CO2, but it stores CO2e for looooong periods.

 

I have a document (and a short video) about this, entitled “Understanding Carbon Dioxide Removal and Storage (CDRS)”    www.woodgas.energy/resources        And here are two graphics from page 12.

 

 

 

 

Please note that our standard naming of CDR technologies have different “interpretations / understandings” about the various words, often using the same words to define other words:

Capture                to remove CO2 from the atmosphere

Storage                to hold LONG TERM the removed CO2   

Removal              BOTH having captured and stored the CO2

AR                          Very weak on storage

CCS                        carbon capture and storage (but is specifically applied to BECCS, not to all CCS)

CCUS                     just add in the word “use” and that somehow makes it different

DAC                       ONLY the capture   (deep geologic storage, etc is NOT included in that designation))

DACCS                  BOTH the capture and storage, although storage issues are major)

Biochar                 ALL about storage;  totally dependent on AR and crop growth for the removal)

CDR                        Usually understood to mean both capture and storage, but CCS name is taken already.

CDRS                     Just adding the “S” to emphasize Storage that some CDR (AR and DAC) do not accomplish.

 

In other words, our terminology is sloppy.  Its usage and dependent on “general understanding by the experts.”   Which means that the general public could be easily confused.   

 

PLEASE read the document.   PLAEASE use it, or suggest changes and we can change it together.

 

[Note on a possible change:  I believe that EW and  CCO “carbon concretions in  oceans – including biological” should be separated from the Engineered capture of DAC and CCE.  ]

 

Paul

 

Doc / Dr TLUD / Paul S. Anderson, PhD --- Website:   www.drtlud.com

         Email:  psanders@...       Skype:   paultlud

         Phone:  Office: 309-452-7072    Mobile & WhatsApp: 309-531-4434

Exec. Dir. of Juntos Energy Solutions NFP    Go to: www.JuntosNFP.org 

Inventor of RoCC kilns and author of Biochar white paper :  See  www.woodgas.energy/resources  

Author of “A Capitalist Carol” (free digital copies at www.capitalism21.org)

         with pages 88 – 94 about solving the world crisis for clean cookstoves.

 

From: carbondioxideremoval@... <carbondioxideremoval@...> On Behalf Of John Crusius
Sent: Friday, October 15, 2021 6:14 PM
To: Carbon Dioxide Removal <CarbonDioxideRemoval@...>
Subject: [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

 

[This message came from an external source. If suspicious, report to abuse@...]

From this month's GRL, accessible via open access

Plain Language Summary

In the past decades, elevating CO2 concentration and rising temperature have promoted the photosynthesis of European vegetation, thus increasing the greenness of vegetation. However, whether these processes could promote the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to absorb CO2 still lacks systematic evaluation. By using a variety of advanced vegetation dynamic models, we found that enhanced vegetation growth which absorbed more CO2, but also an enhancement of ecosystem respiration which released more CO2 in Europe during 2000–2018. The offsetting effect of these two processes has resulted in non-significant trend in the European net CO2 uptake. In addition, the extremely high temperature events (heatwaves) frequently occurred in Europe in recent years, which have caused vegetation damage or even death, triggered forest fires, etc., thereby severely inhibited the carbon sink capacity of the terrestrial ecosystem.

 

John

--
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USBI October 2021 News

Tom Miles
 

USBI Newsletter October 2021
 US Biochar Initiative Newsletter
October 2021
Having trouble viewing this newsletter in its entirety?
Choose 'display all images' (at top of email) and 'view entire
message' (at bottom of email) or download file.
" My administration is . . .proposing investments in sustainable and innovative uses for wood waste materials to produce advanced biofuels, biochar, heat, and power — including through sustainable aviation fuels and other sustainable biofuels. "

RESTORE FORESTS, DECARBONIZE BUILDING, AND SEQUESTER CARBON THROUGH FORESTRY, BIOMASS ENERGY, AND BIOCHAR
By Tom Miles, Executive Director

Forest and biomass industries can help grow biochar production and use. One Oregon mill, the Freres Lumber Company, converts renewable fiber to carbon smart building materials, supplies fiber to paper and engineered wood products, generates firm renewable power, sequesters carbon, and enables carbon and nutrient cycling with biochar.
 
Freres deploys advanced technology to recover fiber from thinning well-managed forests, the mill produces a patented, veneer-based mass timber product, Mass Ply Panels (MPP) which replace climate-unfriendly concrete and steel in tall buildings. They optimize fiber recovery from fire-damaged "black logs". Forest, mill, and urban wood residues, which would otherwise decay in the forest or landfill, are used to generate steam for processing and power for export. The company recovers carbon from the process which is used as biochar to enrich soils and soil amendments for urban landscaping and agriculture in a valley that produces value added crops like nuts, berries, fruit, wine and hemp.
 
Freres also sells carbon offset and removal credits from their low-carbon intensity processes. As markets grow they can look forward to incorporating technology to scale up biochar production. As a fourth generation Oregonian in the wood products industry, I am proud to see a local family using advanced technology to renew and sustain our forests, decarbonize building, and facilitate biological carbon sequestration in forestry and agriculture through biochar.
 
USBI continues to support policies that promote biomass conversion to fiber, energy and biochar to help restore ecosystems, sequester carbon, and reduce emissions through active forest and rangeland management. The Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources recently introduced the bipartisan Senate Bill S.2836 - America’s Revegetation and Carbon Sequestration (ARCs) Act of 2021. Section 203 of the bill directs the Food and Drug Administration to work with the USDA in coordination with the states to establish a pilot program for feeding biochar to livestock. Feeding biochar is an important high value use of biochar. All other countries feed biochar to improve animal health, reduce disease, medicines, and veterinary costs, and increase meat and milk production. Biochar-enriched manures reduce odor, nutrient leaching, and improve soil health in pastures which increase forage production and reduces feed costs.   
 
USBI collaborates with the USDA Forest Service, Agricultural Research Service, and Natural Resource Conservation Service to promote the use of forest residues in climate smart agriculture. Please comment on the USDA's Climate-Smart Agriculture and Forestry Partnership (CSAF) Initiative on or before 11:59 p.m. (ET) on November 1, 2021.
 
USBI will launch a series of live, online, and in-field presentations and demonstrations on making and using biochar for foresters and agronomists to support the implementation of public biochar incentive programs this year. The first will be the, Biochar in the Woods Workshop Webinar and Field Days January 27-February 3, 2022. See the events calendar below.
 
Carbon markets for biochar have drawn interest from investors. USBI and IBI will present an online, interactive Business of Biochar Symposium, December 7-9, 2021 to match investors with entrepreneurs. 
REGISTER TODAY!
The International Biochar Initiative and USBI are pleased to invite you to
The Business of Biochar 
Online Symposium
December 7-9, 2021 
11:30 am - 2:30 pm ET (US)
SUPPORT USBI FOR
A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
BE A STEERING COMMITTEE MEMBER FOR 120K BIOCHAR GRANT!
The U.S. Biochar Initiative (USBI) and the Nebraska Forest Service (NFS), part of the University of Nebraska, Lincoln (UNL), have received a nearly $120,000 grant through the U.S. Forest Service’s Wood Innovations Grant (WIG) program. The grant funds the development of biochar fact sheets, use guidelines, and market road maps in seven areas - stormwater (or manure) management, animal feed, biochar-amended compost, soil blends and growing media, landscape turf and trees, and viticulture.
If you have subject matter expertise in biochar production, applications, and/or business development, consider being a volunteer steering committee member for this exciting initiative. You will be asked to provide advice on developing

materials, review publication drafts, and attend a series of quarterly online meetings over the project's two-year period. Send your letter of interest, qualifications, and availability to USBI Education Committee Chair and Board Member Heather Nobert with "Steering Committee" in the subject line.
MEET A BIOCHAR PRACTITIONER
Zach Hartlyn
Salt Lake City Backyard Urban Gardens (BUG) Farms
Q What is the scale and scope of your urban farming operation?

A My partner, Kristen, and I purchased BUG Farms from some friends 3 years ago. We farm just under an acre of land distributed across eight, small backyard plots in our neighborhood in Salt Lake City. During our 22-week Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) season, we provide an average of 90 weekly vegetable shares to our members and plot-owners. Along with Kristen and I, we have several workers and volunteers each season. Over the last 3 seasons, we have been transitioning our practices toward no-till and away from reliance on deep tillage.

Q What is the soil like? Is there a lot of variability in the neighborhood? What are your top concerns about soil?

A There are some soil differences. Most areas are clay, one area has a nicer loamy soil. We also have fairly high soil pH (7.4-7.8) so we focus a lot on cover cropping and avoid salty high pH manures. We are most worried about drought so we want to build soil carbon to help retain water.

Q What made you decide to try biochar in your operation?

A Both Kristen and I studied biochar in school, so we knew about Terra Preta and how biochar sequesters carbon in the soil. Back when we lived in Vermont, we knew people who had experimented with biochar. We heard GO Biochar's John Webster on a local radio program and contacted him. He was very helpful and gave us the information we needed to get started. This was our first year using biochar. We charged it up with humates, compost, and azomite, and applied about 5 gallons for every 30 square feet in one of our worst plots with heavy clay soil.

Q What kind results did you see? Will you continue to use biochar?

A It’s just the first year, and it was not a heavy application but I will say that the plot where we applied it was terrible last year and this year it was great. Of course, we made other changes, too, because you never just change one thing when you're farming but I think it really helped. We are definitely going to continue with biochar and use it in all of our plots next year. It is the right thing to do. We would like to incorporate better testing and diagnostic tools into our soil practices so that we can more objectively understand the state of the soils we grow in and whether our efforts are helping in any measurable way.

Q What do you mean by “the right thing to do?”

 Farming is hard on soil, even no-till farming. Yeah, we could have continued doing deep tillage and apply thousands of dollars’ worth of blood meal and feather meal to our soil to get high yields, but it wasn't sustainable. It was taxing physically on our bodies and it does not build soil health. Even though we don't own these plots, we have shifted our focus away from an extractive mindset of getting what you can out of this ground before we lose it, to a mentality of trying to leave the soil better than we found it. Biochar is a major component of that focus.
Farming is not just a job, it's a lifestyle. It can be really hard mentally and physically, and it doesn't make all that much money. It often requires a faith in mysterious unseen forces, from tiny microbes to huge weather patterns, and an investment in things that might not payout within our short lifetimes. Kristen and I believe that the efforts we have made are paying off with better crop health and yields. We would like to continue to learn, experiment, and grow these practices, hopefully passing the knowledge and healthier soils on to the people that come after us.
Zach

___________________________________

Correction to last month's "How Biochar & Carbon Credits Work" article.
___________________________________


The reference to the California biochar- based carbon offset methodology was incorrectly attributed to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) when in fact the methodology under development is that of the Climate Action Reserve (CAR). The biochar community fervently hopes that CAR or other standards bodies will propose, and CARB will approve, a biochar methodology for use by CARB in establishing offset credits in the future.
BIOCHAR EVENTS CALENDAR

December 7- 9, 11:30 am - 2:30 pm EST (US) The International Biochar Initiative and US Biochar Initiative invites you to an online symposium The Business of Biochar - where investors and producers meet Register Now
January 27 - February 3, 2022 USBI Biochar in the Woods Workshop Live Webinar and Field Days
What A combination of live, online, and in-field presentations and demonstrations on making and using biochar in place in the forest. 

Why Given the ongoing drought and dangerous wildfire conditions in California and throughout the west, we see an urgent need to train more people on clean techniques for converting problem forest vegetation into biochar onsite. Biochar can
increase the water-holding capacity and resilience of forest soils.

Trainers Kelpie Wilson of Wilson Biochar Associates will lead the training in biochar kiln operations. Deborah Page-Dumroese, US Forest Service Research Soil Scientist, will lead biochar forestry applications training. We will also hear from many others who are developing and using these methods in forest settings around the US.

Who Forestry contractors, arborists, workforce supervisors, forest land owners, and staff from environmental NGOs and natural resource agencies who may be supervising forestry workers, or developing biochar forestry projects and programs. 

This short fact sheet describes the collaboration between USBI and the US Forest Service: working together to spread the word about biochar through webinars and other educational resources that bring the sector together and build new relationships.
In 2020, the San Juan Islands Conservation District in Washington launched the Islands Conservation Corps (ICC) to address a series of ecological challenges with forest restoration. Read this report on their program of in-woods biochar production and ecological monitoring of biochar applied to forest soils.
This detailed project report includes templates for teachers to develop their own classroom experiments with biochar.
Our Biochar Learning Center database on the USBI website continues to grow!

JOIN THE USBI DIRECTORY!

USBI directory listings are categorized by both state and industry sector, making it easy for anyone searching for your products or services to find you.

Add your USBI listing HERE. After review, it will be quickly published in the directory.
BIOCHAR NEWSLINKS
New Bill Aims to Direct Nut Farming Waste into Sustainable fertilizer. In Sacramento, California Representative Josh Harder is pushing a bipartisan bill that would help local farmers and tackle climate change. The Future of Agriculture Resiliency and Modernization Act would give billions of dollars for farmers to invest in green agriculture technology, including pyrolysis, to turn nut shells into biochar.

West Coast Researchers Turn to Biochar in Fight Against Climate Change. In Merced, California, researchers are using biochar to reduce methane in compost. Farmers in Washington’s Methow Valley are developing Forest to Farm supply chains for biochar.

Spinning Wheat Straw into Biochar Gold. Washington's Columbia Pulp LLC and Ag Energy Solutions, Inc. have announced an agreement to partner in processing wheat straw into biochar. This should reduce the burning of residual straw (one of Washington’s top sources of air pollution) and create a new revenue stream for local wheat farmers by more than $15 million annually. Biochar produced will be used as a soil amendment proven to increase crop yields and for carbon-sequestering initiatives.
Poop Pyrolysis Conserves Carbon. Edmonds, Washington is converting the city’s aging sewage sludge incinerator to a pyrolysis technology that will ensure that the carbon that gets flushed down the toilet won’t just end up back in the atmosphere.
« A "fluid lift" incinerator at the Edmonds Wastewater Treatment Plant will be installed to produce biochar. 

Poop to Biochar Via a Poplar Plantation. In Eugene, Oregon, poplar slash from the Metropolitan Wastewater Management
Commission's (MWMC) 2021 Biocycle Farm Poplar Harvest was recently used to produce biochar. Biochar yields from the demonstration will be applied in pilot projects and assessed for their potential benefits. Potential pilot projects include use as a stormwater filtration medium, soil amendment for poplar trees, urban street tree plantings, drought-resilient turf for parks, and natural area restoration.

Farm Tour Opens Doors for Learning and Discovery. Farms across southeast Nebraska participated in the Dig Deeper Farm
Tour last month, inviting people to see their facilities, shop for fresh produce, and learn more about local agriculture, including biochar production. At left, Common Good Farm Co-owner Evrett Lunquist explains to visitors how biochar can be used in soil.

Terraffirm Research Includes Biochar. California non-profit, Terraffirm, is funding a project led by Firefighters United for Safety, Ethics, and Ecology. The project educates and advocates for the use of biochar production in hazardous fuel reduction treatments to reduce wildfire risks without causing adverse environmental impact. Biochar treatments greatly reduce site flammability while also enhancing soil carbon storage.
Texas Trees Get Biochar Medicine. In a guide to pest control for trees, Treenewal recommends their biochar blend for all trees, but say it is especially useful for trees encountering pest and disease pressure. At right, biochar helps Texas trees improve digestion and supplement admission.

Biochar, Trees, and Precision Agriculture to Control Nitrate Levels in Rivers.  Nitrate levels in three Prince Edward Island rivers exceeded the Canadian Water Quality Guideline for Aquatic Life.
The province is now looking at using biochar to control it. Biochar spread on fields can reduce nitrate leaching by improving moisture retention.
« At left, the Dunk is one of three rivers found to have nitrate levels above guidelines.
--------------------- promotional section ---------------------

See your ad here and reach over 2500 biochar readers! Contact admin@....
Proceeds go to the International Biochar Initiative
Visit Biochar-us.org for more information.


Assessing the carbon capture potential of a reforestation project

Tom Miles
 

Assessing the carbon capture potential of a reforestation project

 

Abstract

The number of reforestation projects worldwide is increasing. In many cases funding is obtained through the claimed carbon capture of the trees, presented as immediate and durable, whereas reforested plots need time and maintenance to realise their carbon capture potential. Further, claims usually overlook the environmental costs of natural or anthropogenic disturbances during the forest’s lifetime, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the reforestation are not allowed for. This study uses life cycle assessment to quantify the carbon footprint of setting up a reforestation plot in the Peruvian Amazon. In parallel, we combine a soil carbon model with an above- and below-ground plant carbon model to predict the increase in carbon stocks after planting. We compare our results with the carbon capture claims made by a reforestation platform. Our results show major errors in carbon accounting in reforestation projects if they (1) ignore the time needed for trees to reach their carbon capture potential; (2) ignore the GHG emissions involved in setting up a plot; (3) report the carbon capture potential per tree planted, thereby ignoring limitations at the forest ecosystem level; or (4) under-estimate tree losses due to inevitable human and climatic disturbances. Further, we show that applications of biochar during reforestation can partially compensate for project emissions.

https://rdcu.be/czCnf

 

 


Re: [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

Paul S Anderson
 

John,

 

Thanks for that useful “Plain Language Summary,”   The linked full article says that there is not much benefit of growing more trees (over generalized statement, but if this shoe fits, then wear it.)   So AR (afforestation / reforestation) is not doing much CDR because it lacks STORAGE, which is S.    We need CDRS, emphasizing that storage is also accomplished. 

 

The bright side of the AR as being  only short term (or almost neutral) is that there is a developed and economical / sustainable way to accomplish the storage of 50% of that AR removal.   And that way is called Biochar.   Biochar removes no CO2, but it stores CO2e for looooong periods.

 

I have a document (and a short video) about this, entitled “Understanding Carbon Dioxide Removal and Storage (CDRS)”    www.woodgas.energy/resources        And here are two graphics from page 12.

 

 

 

 

Please note that our standard naming of CDR technologies have different “interpretations / understandings” about the various words, often using the same words to define other words:

Capture                to remove CO2 from the atmosphere

Storage                to hold LONG TERM the removed CO2   

Removal              BOTH having captured and stored the CO2

AR                          Very weak on storage

CCS                        carbon capture and storage (but is specifically applied to BECCS, not to all CCS)

CCUS                     just add in the word “use” and that somehow makes it different

DAC                       ONLY the capture   (deep geologic storage, etc is NOT included in that designation))

DACCS                  BOTH the capture and storage, although storage issues are major)

Biochar                 ALL about storage;  totally dependent on AR and crop growth for the removal)

CDR                        Usually understood to mean both capture and storage, but CCS name is taken already.

CDRS                     Just adding the “S” to emphasize Storage that some CDR (AR and DAC) do not accomplish.

 

In other words, our terminology is sloppy.  Its usage and dependent on “general understanding by the experts.”   Which means that the general public could be easily confused.   

 

PLEASE read the document.   PLAEASE use it, or suggest changes and we can change it together.

 

[Note on a possible change:  I believe that EW and  CCO “carbon concretions in  oceans – including biological” should be separated from the Engineered capture of DAC and CCE.  ]

 

Paul

 

Doc / Dr TLUD / Paul S. Anderson, PhD --- Website:   www.drtlud.com

         Email:  psanders@...       Skype:   paultlud

         Phone:  Office: 309-452-7072    Mobile & WhatsApp: 309-531-4434

Exec. Dir. of Juntos Energy Solutions NFP    Go to: www.JuntosNFP.org 

Inventor of RoCC kilns and author of Biochar white paper :  See  www.woodgas.energy/resources  

Author of “A Capitalist Carol” (free digital copies at www.capitalism21.org)

         with pages 88 – 94 about solving the world crisis for clean cookstoves.

 

From: carbondioxideremoval@... <carbondioxideremoval@...> On Behalf Of John Crusius
Sent: Friday, October 15, 2021 6:14 PM
To: Carbon Dioxide Removal <CarbonDioxideRemoval@...>
Subject: [CDR] terrestrial C cycle

 

[This message came from an external source. If suspicious, report to abuse@...]

From this month's GRL, accessible via open access

Plain Language Summary

In the past decades, elevating CO2 concentration and rising temperature have promoted the photosynthesis of European vegetation, thus increasing the greenness of vegetation. However, whether these processes could promote the ability of terrestrial ecosystems to absorb CO2 still lacks systematic evaluation. By using a variety of advanced vegetation dynamic models, we found that enhanced vegetation growth which absorbed more CO2, but also an enhancement of ecosystem respiration which released more CO2 in Europe during 2000–2018. The offsetting effect of these two processes has resulted in non-significant trend in the European net CO2 uptake. In addition, the extremely high temperature events (heatwaves) frequently occurred in Europe in recent years, which have caused vegetation damage or even death, triggered forest fires, etc., thereby severely inhibited the carbon sink capacity of the terrestrial ecosystem.

 

John

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FW: [CDR] ‘We will produce carbon-negative green hydrogen at a third of the price of standard renewable H2’

Paul S Anderson
 

Charists,

 

Interesting article from Australia.   It seems that the some Hydrogen producers have discovered that if they make biochar they can come out ahead.   Only spending $100 million on a large facility.   They call  it gasification (fine, because people use different definitions), but pyrolysis is what gives the solid carbon.  

 

I suspect that our Aussie and NZ readers will be following this development.   Best wishes to all.

 

Paul

 

Doc / Dr TLUD / Paul S. Anderson, PhD --- Website:   www.drtlud.com

         Email:  psanders@...       Skype:   paultlud

         Phone:  Office: 309-452-7072    Mobile & WhatsApp: 309-531-4434

Exec. Dir. of Juntos Energy Solutions NFP    Go to: www.JuntosNFP.org 

Inventor of RoCC kilns and author of Biochar white paper :  See  www.woodgas.energy/resources  

Author of “A Capitalist Carol” (free digital copies at www.capitalism21.org)

         with pages 88 – 94 about solving the world crisis for clean cookstoves.

 

From: carbondioxideremoval@... <carbondioxideremoval@...> On Behalf Of Geoeng Info
Sent: Friday, October 15, 2021 6:00 PM
To: carbondioxideremoval@...
Subject: [CDR] ‘We will produce carbon-negative green hydrogen at a third of the price of standard renewable H2’

 

[This message came from an external source. If suspicious, report to abuse@...]

 

‘We will produce carbon-negative green hydrogen at a third of the price of standard renewable H2’

 

‘Unique’ process will generate multiple revenue streams from the gasification of woody waste biomass, enabling the H2 to be sold at a low price, chief executive of technology developer CAC-H2 tells Recharge

 

A new international joint venture (JV) is to build a $100m-plus project in Australia that will produce carbon-negative green hydrogen and ammonia from woody waste biomass using a “unique” gasification process.

 

Instead of releasing the CO2 absorbed by the wood as it grew, the carbon will instead be trapped in the form of solid biochar, a substance similar to charcoal that can be used to enrich agricultural soil.

“We are carbon negative because we emit less than we sequester,” said Glenn Davies, chief executive of joint venture partner CAC-H2, a biomass-focused Singaporean technology company.

The Port Anthony Renewables Hub will initially produce 75,000 tonnes of green ammonia and about 1,000 tonnes of H2 per year by 2023 at Port Anthony in southeast Australia, as part of the Hydrogen Plus JV between CAC-H2 and clean-energy developer Port Anthony Renewables.

Production of both hydrogen and ammonia can be scaled up in future, according to demand, with the initial ammonia output being lined up for export to Japan, South Korea and Singapore, and the hydrogen being used locally.

Standard gasification is a combustion-free process that uses high temperature heat of more than 700°C and a small amount of oxygen and/or steam to break biomatter down into carbon dioxide and hydrogen. But CAC-H2’s gasification process creates solid carbon instead of CO2.

“Our process is unique as we are solving many problems along the way including waste, carbon removal, and clean energy production,” Davies tells Recharge.

“Our by-products are also great for the agricultural sector and construction industries who can use our biochar & wood vinegar [a so-called ‘superfood’ for plants with the chemical formula C5H4O2] for environmental purposes, or blend the biochar with cement for a ‘green’ building product.”

“And because we’re helping with a waste removal problem, avoiding landfills or incineration, we are often paid to remove this [woody biomass] feedstock.

These multiple revenue streams, including carbon credits, “allow us to have one of the most effective production costs for green hydrogen in the market today — at least a third of what it costs via electrolysis. Our internal commitment is to meet global demand for hydrogen at $2/kg by 2030.”

Standard green hydrogen — which uses renewable electricity to split water molecules into H2 and oxygen in a process called electrolysis — is said to cost $2.50-6 per kg, according to the International Energy Agency, with the price depending on a wide range of factors, including the cost of green power and electrolysers, the capacity factors of renewables projects, operating expenditure, interest rates, etc.

Climate think-tank Energy Transitions Commission believes that by 2030 the cost of standard electrolytic green hydrogen will fall to “below $2 per kilogram in most geographies and even lower in favorable geographies with very cheap renewables”.

Davies tells Recharge that the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process — which combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen to produce ammonia — will be powered by burning some of the syngas created during the gasification process. While this combustion results in a “small” amount of emissions, “the net effect is still carbon negative”, he explains.

The woody waste matter will be sourced locally, Davies adds.

“Some of our feedstock is residual wood chips and wood waste coming from sustainable sawmill activities, and a large part is removing forestry-floor fallen timber from sustainable forestry management practices.

“We are also talking to municipal waste and industrial waste partners to look at alternate feedstocks depending on the plant’s production objectives.”

CAC-H2 is also utilising its carbon-negative biomass-gasification technology at two other projects in Australia — in the Hunter region of New South Wales, where it aims to produce 800 tonnes of hydrogen per year; and in Bundaberg, Queensland, where it will manufacture 4,500 tonnes of green H2 and 27,000 tonnes of ammonia annually.

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Re: Biochar Testing

Hugh McLaughlin
 

To the Biochar group,

According to the fine print on the Control Labs analytical reports, the BET-N2 surface area values are calculated from a correlation based on the measured value of Butane Activity, with that correlation being culled from a paper presented in 2012 the paper is attached and available at http://acfox.com/index_files/Page509.htm). As the lead author of that paper, I believe that correlation is not valid for application to biochars outside the four TLUD samples discussed in the paper. Specifically, the correlation used by Control Labs does not pass through zero BET-N2 surface area for a butane activity of zero g/100 g (wt % butane activity). The correlation (BET-N2 in m2/gm = 38.426 * wt percent Butane Activity + 187.97) was based on the four TLUD data points and adds almost two hundred m2/gm to any butane measurement.

While I am the first to advocate that BET-N2 measurements for biochars are not accurate, I worry that reporting BET-N2 values derived from a correlation based on only four other biochars is fraught with error that does not promote confidence that biochars are being accurately characterized and the properties reported are accurate.

- Hugh McLaughlin,PhD, PE

On Friday, October 15, 2021, 06:23:40 PM EDT, mikethewormguy via groups.io <mikethewormguy@...> wrote:


Erica,

The characterization testing is important but it only tells you what the char is or is not. 

Are you being asked about performance testing....?

Mike


Re: President Biden Mentions Biochar in celebration of National Forest Products week

Frank Strie
 

Thanks for the great positive statement.
Just finished reading this disturbing and serious article about the conventional Biofuel / Pellets to Power between US & UK.

The author:  https://www.linkedin.com/in/justin-catanoso-4a4b554

 

Mongabay Series: Bioenergy

 

Forest biomass-burning supply chain is producing major carbon emissions: Studies

by Justin Catanoso on 15 October 2021

https://news.mongabay.com/2021/10/forest-biomass-burning-supply-chain-is-producing-major-carbon-emissions-studies/?fbclid=IwAR10CNd886dh1H6CIUydzw1d1Syun7iIt5RaPPzX-G1I4IVWpuXSrvlUJfo&utm_source=spotim&utm_medium=spotim_recirculation

 

Justin Catanoso, a regular Mongabay contributor, is a professor of journalism at Wake Forest University. He will cover the proceedings of COP26 from Glasgow in November. Follow him on Twitter @jcatanoso

I like to suggest that IBI, USBI, EBI and Ithaka Institute provide information to Prof. J. Catanoso about PyCCS ...

It would be powerful stuff if  he would report on the alternative scenario on mongabay.com

What do you suggest?

 

I am thinking of making contact with him as well to point to my ProSilva = Restorative Forestry  involvements and the article about my work in mongobay.com from 2009 / ages ago: https://news.mongabay.com/2009/07/a-tasmanian-tragedy-how-the-forestry-industry-has-torn-an-island-apart

 

So the key fundamental difference in all things related to Biochar and PyCCS , the sourcing of biomass feedstock to be based on : ProSilva style Restorative, site specific Forest Management  https://www.prosilva.org + Regenerative Agriculture + Renovative Water Catchment Management.

We need to assist the people around the globe to get the full picture as we have read it also in BURN...
No time to waste
Frank again
www.terrapretadevelopments.com.au

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Tom Miles
Sent: Saturday, October 16, 2021 10:18 AM
To: Biochar@groups.io
Subject: [Biochar] President Biden Mentions Biochar in celebration of National Forest Products week

 

“My Administration is also supporting business opportunities that advance forest conservation and create jobs by expanding markets for innovative forest products through Federal programs such as the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Wood Innovations and Community Wood grant programs.  We are proposing investments in sustainable and innovative uses for wood waste materials to produce advanced biofuels, biochar, heat, and power — including through sustainable aviation fuels and other sustainable biofuels.  These programs have the potential to support increased connections between the health of our forests, economic opportunity, and the production of valuable renewable energy.” 

 

https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/2021/10/15/a-proclamation-on-national-forest-products-week-2021/


President Biden Mentions Biochar in celebration of National Forest Products week

Tom Miles
 

“My Administration is also supporting business opportunities that advance forest conservation and create jobs by expanding markets for innovative forest products through Federal programs such as the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Wood Innovations and Community Wood grant programs.  We are proposing investments in sustainable and innovative uses for wood waste materials to produce advanced biofuels, biochar, heat, and power — including through sustainable aviation fuels and other sustainable biofuels.  These programs have the potential to support increased connections between the health of our forests, economic opportunity, and the production of valuable renewable energy.” 

 

https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/2021/10/15/a-proclamation-on-national-forest-products-week-2021/


Re: Biochar Testing

mikethewormguy
 

Erica,

The characterization testing is important but it only tells you what the char is or is not. 

Are you being asked about performance testing....?

Mike


Re: Biochar Producers on Kauai?

Rick Wilson
 

Tom, I could get it done from the US.  Need to be a whole container in super sacks.  Rick


On Oct 14, 2021, at 8:22 AM, Tom Miles <tmiles@...> wrote:

Does anyone know of biochar producers on Kauai, Hawaii, or companies that can deliver to Kauai? 
 
Many thanks
 
Tom
 
Tom Miles
Executive Director
U.S. Biochar Initiative
"Promoting the Sustainable Production and Use of Biochar"
@USbiochar
 
 
 


Re: Biochar Testing

CHANDRA SEKHAR PAUL
 



Hi Erica,
You can contact them:
www.celignis.com
but it's in Ireland

Regards,

Chandra Sekhar Paul

Doctoral Researcher

Faculty of Agrobiology, Food

and Natural Resources

Department of Agroenvironmental

Chemistry and Plant Nutrition

Office 47

Czech University of Life Sciences (CULS)

Kamýcká 129 165 00 Praha 6 - Suchdol

Prague, Czech Republic.



On Thu, Oct 14, 2021 at 11:45 PM Erica Reinheimer <erica@...> wrote:
Hi All, 

I have been asked to arrange testing for some biochar produced in India.
As they are sending some soil samples to Logan Labs, I will have Logan test it using their usual soil tests plus As, Cd, Co, Cr, EC, ENR, Mo, Ni, Se, Si.

What other tests are necessary? 

Is there a lab in India or the US which can do those tests? If in the US the lab needs to be able to receive samples from overseas, in other words APHIS certified.

Thanks!

Erica


Re: Biochar Testing

Marshall Mermell
 

Erica, just be sure to stipulate the IBI characterization for Biochar. We have used them for over nine years. 

Warm regards,
Marshall 

On Fri, Oct 15, 2021 at 7:28 AM Erica Reinheimer <erica@...> wrote:
Thanks Marshall,

Control Labs is my favorite compost testing lab. They provide good phone support if there are questions about their analysis.
Glad to hear they will do biochar testing too.

Thanks,

Erica

--
Marshall Mermell
Advanced Resilient Biocarbon, LLC


New York Hudson Valley office:
292 Main Street
P.O. Box 333
Cold Spring, NY 10516 (Eastern time zone) 
Turning Waste Into Revenue™
Tel/Cell: 845.222.5048 | Fax: 845.231.4061 | WhatsApp: 845.222.5048

NOTICE: Sender does not intend to waive confidentiality or privilege. 
Use of this email is prohibited when received in error.


Re: Biochar Testing

 

Thanks Marshall,

Control Labs is my favorite compost testing lab. They provide good phone support if there are questions about their analysis.
Glad to hear they will do biochar testing too.

Thanks,

Erica


Re: Biochar Testing

Marshall Mermell
 

We recommend Control Labs in Watsonville, CA.  They will perform the tests under the IBI standards, reconognized by IBI.  You should specify this test standard.

If you have questions, feel free to text me on my mobile/WhatsApp number: +1 845-222-5048.

Warm regards,
Marshall

Marshall Mermell
Advanced Resilient Biocarbon, LLC


New York Hudson Valley office:
292 Main Street
P.O. Box 333
Cold Spring, NY 10516 (Eastern time zone) 
Turning Waste Into Revenue™
Tel/Cell: 845.222.5048 | Fax: 845.231.4061 | WhatsApp: 845.222.5048

NOTICE: Sender does not intend to waive confidentiality or privilege. 
Use of this email is prohibited when received in error.


On Thu, Oct 14, 2021 at 5:45 PM Erica Reinheimer <erica@...> wrote:
Hi All, 

I have been asked to arrange testing for some biochar produced in India.
As they are sending some soil samples to Logan Labs, I will have Logan test it using their usual soil tests plus As, Cd, Co, Cr, EC, ENR, Mo, Ni, Se, Si.

What other tests are necessary? 

Is there a lab in India or the US which can do those tests? If in the US the lab needs to be able to receive samples from overseas, in other words APHIS certified.

Thanks!

Erica


Biochar Testing

 

Hi All, 

I have been asked to arrange testing for some biochar produced in India.
As they are sending some soil samples to Logan Labs, I will have Logan test it using their usual soil tests plus As, Cd, Co, Cr, EC, ENR, Mo, Ni, Se, Si.

What other tests are necessary? 

Is there a lab in India or the US which can do those tests? If in the US the lab needs to be able to receive samples from overseas, in other words APHIS certified.

Thanks!

Erica


Biochar Producers on Kauai?

Tom Miles
 

Does anyone know of biochar producers on Kauai, Hawaii, or companies that can deliver to Kauai?

 

Many thanks

 

Tom

 

Tom Miles

Executive Director

U.S. Biochar Initiative

"Promoting the Sustainable Production and Use of Biochar"

www.biochar-us.org

@USbiochar

Facebook US Biochar Initiative

USBI Logo - Copy (420x176)

 

 

 


Re: [Stoves] ***SPAM*** Cooking with crop waste (less smoke and makes biochar) and burning crop waste in the field (less smoke and makes biochar) - New training video

Ron Larson
 

Kevin, Stoves +  2 list ccs

These two short surveys below are quite surprising. Surprising in being so alike and positive.   I think there are several PhD theses in following and expanding these first results.   Here are some of the questions I’d like to see answered (we can’t wait for a thesis - but still think there is plenty of new †thesis material here - to better understand the whole cookstove world.).   The following questions applying to many possible respondents.

1.  Respondent #5 (Grace Kikuka) said:
  • "Warms the ground that elongates the cooking"
    This suggests the possibility of finding other ways to exploit this stored energy feature.  
    Was this after removing the char?  
    Might she have placed the cook-pot in the hole?  
    Might she have had a pot support means (bricks?) that was helpful?  
    Might she have had a hole lining ? (bricks?)

  • "Variety of fuels can be used"
What did she (anyone) use and were any preferred over corn stalks? 
Were they applied sequentially or in the same cook session? 
 How did they compare to corn stalks? 
 Might she have used cobs?  
 She reported 32 minutes - was there much variation for her times (if any)?

    2.   The cooking times varied from 25 to 32 minutes.   
This is pretty tight, but can we explain the differences?  
All 25 cm cubic holes?  
More pile height above ground for the longer cook times?  
And less for the short times? 
 Different fuels?  
Cooks stacked fuel differently?

     3.   Any cook intentionally changing the hole size (to get shorter or longer cook times?   
Anyone dug two holes?  
Same size?

     4.  Any cook intentionally moving to a rectangular rather than square pit?  
(maybe thinking they’d like to use two cook pots?)

5.   The usual TLUD questions - 
what weight of stalks and 
what weight of produced char?
what quality char?
How much better was indoor air quality over usual 3-stone approach?

6.  How soon was char used and how?   
seedling response? 
 any comparative tests (with and without char?
was there preference for combusting the char over use as biochar?
did present users of biochar react same as never users?

7. What experiences on using urine?
what percentage using and not using?
why or why not?

8.   How has their experience gone in training others?  
What problems came up?  
Any negatives from trainers or trainees?

9.  There was a question on failure of the hole wall.  Options to avoid wall failure are:
give up on cooking with holes
dig new holes as needed
use a metal wall. (what cost?   who supplied?t)
use bricks. (already done - any negatives?
use one or a few  fired clay pieces
use unfired clay
other?
10.  How fast does news travel?   
Days before information is forwarded, if any?   
Any way to identify reasons for message transmittal or non-transmittal?  
Is there a way to guesstimate user doubling time?

11.  Is there any group that will be likely to try to slow this practice down?  
  Sellers of commercial stoves? 
 Or is this stove only likely to be seen favorably by present users only of 3-stone method?  
Is this considered by users really new - or just small improvement? 
Is there a way to more exactly quantify differences between this and traditional methods?

12.  Can the various positives that were identified be ranked in order of importance to new adoptees?    
Is char-making more or less important than saving time?   
What would new users like different?

13.  NOT to present and future AgWa user and research community - but rather to all stove list members.  What other questions or suggestions to Kevin and future researchers come to mind?

Ron


On Oct 12, 2021, at 9:45 AM, K McLean <kmclean56@...> wrote:

Here are reports from two quick surveys of a total of 31 women trained to burn maize stalks in holes in three stone cookstoves.  Notably, almost all are using maize stalks for all meals.  And, of those, all state they will never cook with wood again.

On Fri, Oct 8, 2021 at 2:12 PM K McLean <kmclean56@...> wrote:
Here is a new training video that we have started disseminating in Africa:  https://youtu.be/DmzQFCp2kNI

<snip>

901 - 920 of 31787