Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential #stoves


Tom Miles
 

Sweden, Kenya: Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential

Household air pollution annually kills around 14 300 people in Kenya, due to the hazardous smoke of incomplete combustion coming from inefficient stoves. Exposure to this smoke leads to lethal health issues for the women and children staying in these kitchens, but the smoke also leads to a contribution to global warming. Which makes it important finding a replacement for the inefficient traditional cooking methods.

This report presents results from a field work situated in Kibugu, Embu in central Kenya. It includes testing of three stoves, the traditional Three stone open fire and two biochar producing stoves, the previously tested stove Gastov made by KIRDI and the MiG|BioCooker made by Make It Green Solutions AB. The data was collected using participatory cooking tests where five households got to cook the traditional meal Ugali with Sukuma wiki and Githeri (maize and beans). Firewood consumption, emissions of CO and PM, user experience and char production were measured during the test, to be able to compare the stoves.

The results indicate that the MiG|BioCooker can decrease the emissions of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchens and produce biochar. But on the other hand, cooking with three stone open fire more effective in terms of cooking time. Even though the MiG|BioCooker could improve the conditions of the household’s indoor air, the users seems to prioritize the practical characteristics of the three stone open fire that gives them more time and making it easier to cook. But with some modifications and by further use of the MiG|BioCooker, it might be a possible substitute to the three stone open fire in the future. 

 

https://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1349162/FULLTEXT01.pdf

 

Tom Miles

Chair

International Biochar Initiative

Biochar-international.org

 

 


d.michael.shafer@gmail.com
 

Tom,

Indirectly, this raises a set of issues related to stoves that are seldom discussed. Those evaluating stove performance often arrive with their own notions of what matters and seldom take into consideration what matters most to the woman in whose kitchen they are visiting (if, indeed, they visit at all). At the end of the day, we have always found that the technical differences among stoves are relatively small. On the other hand, women have been very decisive about which stoves they would consider buying for themselves. Their choices never involved CO or PM2.5 emissions. They involved stability, height of the cook surface from the ground, heat output and the controllability of the heat output and, of course, cost. 

To be honest, not a single stove has succeeded in our area in North Thailand in either the lowland Thain or mountain communities. The stoves never had a chance in the mountain communities, where the fact that they did not put out smoke doomed them from the start. ("We know all about bad smoke," they told our focus group leader, "but without smoke, we have no protection against mosquitoes and our kids will die of malaria or dengue. Between risking dying nor or later, we prefer later.")

Among the lowland Thais, heat output is the biggest deal after cost and availability. The most likely consumers are restaurant and noodle stand owners who have large pots of broth to keep hot all day. They want a fire that they can stoke up to really hot to get 10 gallons boiling and then keep it simmering for 12 hours.

Highly efficient, clean stoves won't do it. Pot stoves and stones will.

So will briquettes made with biochar. As long as they they are properly dried, they light fast, burn much hotter and longer than regular charcoal, don't smoke and don't smell. Women can buy them for the same price as charcoal, but they work much better - and don't leave the pot black with tarry gunk. Yes, they emit CO, but no PM2.5. And because they represent no more than the substitution of a new version of a known product for an old one, they require no impossible marketing and sales effort (not that anyone has put put one into stoves).

General suggestion: If the aim of evaluation is not merely technical, but instead is meant to market test stoves that will actually sell, it would be a good idea to begin by surveying a large number of women in their kitchens to find out what matters to them in a cook stove.

M

On Tue, Sep 10, 2019 at 10:58 PM tmiles@... [biochar] <biochar@...> wrote:
 

Sweden, Kenya: Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential

Household air pollution annually kills around 14 300 people in Kenya, due to the hazardous smoke of incomplete combustion coming from inefficient stoves. Exposure to this smoke leads to lethal health issues for the women and children staying in these kitchens, but the smoke also leads to a contribution to global warming. Which makes it important finding a replacement for the inefficient traditional cooking methods.

This report presents results from a field work situated in Kibugu, Embu in central Kenya. It includes testing of three stoves, the traditional Three stone open fire and two biochar producing stoves, the previously tested stove Gastov made by KIRDI and the MiG|BioCooker made by Make It Green Solutions AB. The data was collected using participatory cooking tests where five households got to cook the traditional meal Ugali with Sukuma wiki and Githeri (maize and beans). Firewood consumption, emissions of CO and PM, user experience and char production were measured during the test, to be able to compare the stoves.

The results indicate that the MiG|BioCooker can decrease the emissions of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchens and produce biochar. But on the other hand, cooking with three stone open fire more effective in terms of cooking time. Even though the MiG|BioCooker could improve the conditions of the household’s indoor air, the users seems to prioritize the practical characteristics of the three stone open fire that gives them more time and making it easier to cook. But with some modifications and by further use of the MiG|BioCooker, it might be a possible substitute to the three stone open fire in the future. 

 

https://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1349162/FULLTEXT01.pdf

 

Tom Miles

Chair

International Biochar Initiative

Biochar-international.org

 

 


Teel, Wayne
 

Michael and Tom,

Michael is correct here. I took three TLUD stoves of differing sizes to Tanzania in 2015 and worked with some women in Longido in northern Tanzania. They really like the stoves because they could use small, easy to collect sticks, .5 to 1.5 cm in diameter, random lengths, rather than larger wood that took much longer to find. However the burn time when completely full was around 20 minutes, long enough to make tea or ugali (corn meal, thick porridge that is a local staple) or white rice, but not long enough for maize and beans, the real staple. That takes a two hour burn. So they were happy with the TLUD, but only for quick cooking. For the longer cooking foods they used a charcoal jiko (stove). They loved the smokeless burn especially when they made tea in the morning or late afternoon, but it just did not work for the main meal. (Mosquitos are not a problem in the dry parts of East Africa, but you do get lots of flies associated with the grazing/browsing animals.) The other issue with the Maasai is that they have no use for the biochar (pastoralists not farmers), so when I showed them how to quench the TLUD, they were indifferent, they just used the resulting charcoal in the jiko later. Socially appropriate technology is important and that is associated with place and culture.

Wayne

From: biochar@yahoogroups.com <biochar@yahoogroups.com>
Sent: Wednesday, September 11, 2019 1:17 AM
To: biochar <biochar@yahoogroups.com>
Subject: Re: [biochar] Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential


Tom,

Indirectly, this raises a set of issues related to stoves that are seldom discussed. Those evaluating stove performance often arrive with their own notions of what matters and seldom take into consideration what matters most to the woman in whose kitchen they are visiting (if, indeed, they visit at all). At the end of the day, we have always found that the technical differences among stoves are relatively small. On the other hand, women have been very decisive about which stoves they would consider buying for themselves. Their choices never involved CO or PM2.5 emissions. They involved stability, height of the cook surface from the ground, heat output and the controllability of the heat output and, of course, cost.

To be honest, not a single stove has succeeded in our area in North Thailand in either the lowland Thain or mountain communities. The stoves never had a chance in the mountain communities, where the fact that they did not put out smoke doomed them from the start. ("We know all about bad smoke," they told our focus group leader, "but without smoke, we have no protection against mosquitoes and our kids will die of malaria or dengue. Between risking dying nor or later, we prefer later.")

Among the lowland Thais, heat output is the biggest deal after cost and availability. The most likely consumers are restaurant and noodle stand owners who have large pots of broth to keep hot all day. They want a fire that they can stoke up to really hot to get 10 gallons boiling and then keep it simmering for 12 hours.

Highly efficient, clean stoves won't do it. Pot stoves and stones will.

So will briquettes made with biochar. As long as they they are properly dried, they light fast, burn much hotter and longer than regular charcoal, don't smoke and don't smell. Women can buy them for the same price as charcoal, but they work much better - and don't leave the pot black with tarry gunk. Yes, they emit CO, but no PM2.5. And because they represent no more than the substitution of a new version of a known product for an old one, they require no impossible marketing and sales effort (not that anyone has put put one into stoves).

General suggestion: If the aim of evaluation is not merely technical, but instead is meant to market test stoves that will actually sell, it would be a good idea to begin by surveying a large number of women in their kitchens to find out what matters to them in a cook stove.

M

Michael Shafer
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[photo]

Dr. D. Michael Shafer
Founder and Director, Warm Heart

+1 732-745-9295<tel:+1%20732-745-9295> | +66 (0)85 199-2958<tel:+66%20(0)85%20199-2958> | d.michael.shafer@gmail.com<mailto:d.michael.shafer@gmail.com>


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On Tue, Sep 10, 2019 at 10:58 PM tmiles@trmiles.com<mailto:tmiles@trmiles.com> [biochar] <biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>> wrote:

Sweden, Kenya: Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential

Household air pollution annually kills around 14 300 people in Kenya, due to the hazardous smoke of incomplete combustion coming from inefficient stoves. Exposure to this smoke leads to lethal health issues for the women and children staying in these kitchens, but the smoke also leads to a contribution to global warming. Which makes it important finding a replacement for the inefficient traditional cooking methods.

This report presents results from a field work situated in Kibugu, Embu in central Kenya. It includes testing of three stoves, the traditional Three stone open fire and two biochar producing stoves, the previously tested stove Gastov made by KIRDI and the MiG|BioCooker made by Make It Green Solutions AB. The data was collected using participatory cooking tests where five households got to cook the traditional meal Ugali with Sukuma wiki and Githeri (maize and beans). Firewood consumption, emissions of CO and PM, user experience and char production were measured during the test, to be able to compare the stoves.

The results indicate that the MiG|BioCooker can decrease the emissions of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchens and produce biochar. But on the other hand, cooking with three stone open fire more effective in terms of cooking time. Even though the MiG|BioCooker could improve the conditions of the household’s indoor air, the users seems to prioritize the practical characteristics of the three stone open fire that gives them more time and making it easier to cook. But with some modifications and by further use of the MiG|BioCooker, it might be a possible substitute to the three stone open fire in the future.

https://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1349162/FULLTEXT01.pdf<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__kth.diva-2Dportal.org_smash_get_diva2-3A1349162_FULLTEXT01.pdf&d=DwMFaQ&c=eLbWYnpnzycBCgmb7vCI4uqNEB9RSjOdn_5nBEmmeq0&r=vpvQhV2EKW5379sz106UEw&m=HdKqhIM8FgMhysEnH6FEA_pqgQ-5CgIhnYN-TwWCQEY&s=wYuhX8HTgTDqNVMbWAbvQSOScjFU6zKvMPxRDcHMCkw&e=>

Tom Miles
Chair
International Biochar Initiative
Biochar-international.org
[Logo160.]


d.michael.shafer@gmail.com
 

Wayne,

Obviously we have had similar experiences with stoves, but I must disagree about cattle peoples and biochar. Elsewhere in Africa, biochar in cattle feed has proved to be very beneficial. It reduces intestinal illnesses and increases both weight gain and milk yield.
Cows will eat it straight, but like it better with a bit of salt (iodized if available) or sugar (molasses is available).

M

On Wed, Sep 11, 2019 at 5:01 PM 'Teel, Wayne - teelws' teelws@... [biochar] <biochar@...> wrote:
 

Michael and Tom,

 

Michael is correct here.  I took three TLUD stoves of differing sizes to Tanzania in 2015 and worked with some women in Longido in northern Tanzania.  They really like the stoves because they could use small, easy to collect sticks, .5 to 1.5 cm in diameter, random lengths, rather than larger wood that took much longer to find.  However the burn time when completely full was around 20 minutes, long enough to make tea or ugali (corn meal, thick porridge that is a local staple) or white rice, but not long enough for maize and beans, the real staple.  That takes a two hour burn.  So they were happy with the TLUD, but only for quick cooking.  For the longer cooking foods they used a charcoal jiko (stove).  They loved the smokeless burn especially when they made tea in the morning or late afternoon, but it just did not work for the main meal.  (Mosquitos are not a problem in the dry parts of East Africa, but you do get lots of flies associated with the grazing/browsing animals.)  The other issue with the Maasai is that they have no use for the biochar (pastoralists not farmers), so when I showed them how to quench the TLUD, they were indifferent, they just used the resulting charcoal in the jiko later. Socially appropriate technology is important and that is associated with place and culture.

 

Wayne

 

From: biochar@... <biochar@...>
Sent: Wednesday, September 11, 2019 1:17 AM
To: biochar <biochar@...>
Subject: Re: [biochar] Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential

 

 

Tom,

 

Indirectly, this raises a set of issues related to stoves that are seldom discussed. Those evaluating stove performance often arrive with their own notions of what matters and seldom take into consideration what matters most to the woman in whose kitchen they are visiting (if, indeed, they visit at all). At the end of the day, we have always found that the technical differences among stoves are relatively small. On the other hand, women have been very decisive about which stoves they would consider buying for themselves. Their choices never involved CO or PM2.5 emissions. They involved stability, height of the cook surface from the ground, heat output and the controllability of the heat output and, of course, cost. 

 

To be honest, not a single stove has succeeded in our area in North Thailand in either the lowland Thain or mountain communities. The stoves never had a chance in the mountain communities, where the fact that they did not put out smoke doomed them from the start. ("We know all about bad smoke," they told our focus group leader, "but without smoke, we have no protection against mosquitoes and our kids will die of malaria or dengue. Between risking dying nor or later, we prefer later.")

 

Among the lowland Thais, heat output is the biggest deal after cost and availability. The most likely consumers are restaurant and noodle stand owners who have large pots of broth to keep hot all day. They want a fire that they can stoke up to really hot to get 10 gallons boiling and then keep it simmering for 12 hours.

 

Highly efficient, clean stoves won't do it. Pot stoves and stones will.

 

So will briquettes made with biochar. As long as they they are properly dried, they light fast, burn much hotter and longer than regular charcoal, don't smoke and don't smell. Women can buy them for the same price as charcoal, but they work much better - and don't leave the pot black with tarry gunk. Yes, they emit CO, but no PM2.5. And because they represent no more than the substitution of a new version of a known product for an old one, they require no impossible marketing and sales effort (not that anyone has put put one into stoves).

 

General suggestion: If the aim of evaluation is not merely technical, but instead is meant to market test stoves that will actually sell, it would be a good idea to begin by surveying a large number of women in their kitchens to find out what matters to them in a cook stove.

 

M




photo

Dr. D. Michael Shafer
Founder and Director, Warm Heart

+1 732-745-9295 | +66 (0)85 199-2958 | d.michael.shafer@...

www.warmheartworldwide.org | Skype: live:d.michael.shafer53

61 M.8 T.Maepang A.Phrao 50190 Chiang Mai Thailand

 

 

 

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On Tue, Sep 10, 2019 at 10:58 PM tmiles@... [biochar] <biochar@...> wrote:

 

Sweden, Kenya: Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential

Household air pollution annually kills around 14 300 people in Kenya, due to the hazardous smoke of incomplete combustion coming from inefficient stoves. Exposure to this smoke leads to lethal health issues for the women and children staying in these kitchens, but the smoke also leads to a contribution to global warming. Which makes it important finding a replacement for the inefficient traditional cooking methods.

This report presents results from a field work situated in Kibugu, Embu in central Kenya. It includes testing of three stoves, the traditional Three stone open fire and two biochar producing stoves, the previously tested stove Gastov made by KIRDI and the MiG|BioCooker made by Make It Green Solutions AB. The data was collected using participatory cooking tests where five households got to cook the traditional meal Ugali with Sukuma wiki and Githeri (maize and beans). Firewood consumption, emissions of CO and PM, user experience and char production were measured during the test, to be able to compare the stoves.

The results indicate that the MiG|BioCooker can decrease the emissions of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchens and produce biochar. But on the other hand, cooking with three stone open fire more effective in terms of cooking time. Even though the MiG|BioCooker could improve the conditions of the household’s indoor air, the users seems to prioritize the practical characteristics of the three stone open fire that gives them more time and making it easier to cook. But with some modifications and by further use of the MiG|BioCooker, it might be a possible substitute to the three stone open fire in the future. 

 

https://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1349162/FULLTEXT01.pdf

 

Tom Miles

Chair

International Biochar Initiative

Biochar-international.org

 

 


Teel, Wayne
 

Michael,

Good point. I have some Maasai friends. I will ask them about it and see what else I missed about charcoal. The problem was I tested in a town, but the cattle were mostly out on range so I seldom saw them in the place where I was testing the stoves. The Maasai are highly mobile – you would have to carry a stove, but the three stones you can find anywhere.

Wayne

From: biochar@yahoogroups.com <biochar@yahoogroups.com>
Sent: Thursday, September 12, 2019 2:31 AM
To: biochar <biochar@yahoogroups.com>
Subject: Re: [biochar] Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential


Wayne,

Obviously we have had similar experiences with stoves, but I must disagree about cattle peoples and biochar. Elsewhere in Africa, biochar in cattle feed has proved to be very beneficial. It reduces intestinal illnesses and increases both weight gain and milk yield.
Cows will eat it straight, but like it better with a bit of salt (iodized if available) or sugar (molasses is available).

M

Michael Shafer
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Dr. D. Michael Shafer
Founder and Director, Warm Heart

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61 M.8 T.Maepang A.Phrao 50190 Chiang Mai Thailand


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On Wed, Sep 11, 2019 at 5:01 PM 'Teel, Wayne - teelws' teelws@jmu.edu<mailto:teelws@jmu.edu> [biochar] <biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>> wrote:

Michael and Tom,

Michael is correct here. I took three TLUD stoves of differing sizes to Tanzania in 2015 and worked with some women in Longido in northern Tanzania. They really like the stoves because they could use small, easy to collect sticks, .5 to 1.5 cm in diameter, random lengths, rather than larger wood that took much longer to find. However the burn time when completely full was around 20 minutes, long enough to make tea or ugali (corn meal, thick porridge that is a local staple) or white rice, but not long enough for maize and beans, the real staple. That takes a two hour burn. So they were happy with the TLUD, but only for quick cooking. For the longer cooking foods they used a charcoal jiko (stove). They loved the smokeless burn especially when they made tea in the morning or late afternoon, but it just did not work for the main meal. (Mosquitos are not a problem in the dry parts of East Africa, but you do get lots of flies associated with the grazing/browsing animals.) The other issue with the Maasai is that they have no use for the biochar (pastoralists not farmers), so when I showed them how to quench the TLUD, they were indifferent, they just used the resulting charcoal in the jiko later. Socially appropriate technology is important and that is associated with place and culture.

Wayne

From: biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com> <biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>>
Sent: Wednesday, September 11, 2019 1:17 AM
To: biochar <biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>>
Subject: Re: [biochar] Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential


Tom,

Indirectly, this raises a set of issues related to stoves that are seldom discussed. Those evaluating stove performance often arrive with their own notions of what matters and seldom take into consideration what matters most to the woman in whose kitchen they are visiting (if, indeed, they visit at all). At the end of the day, we have always found that the technical differences among stoves are relatively small. On the other hand, women have been very decisive about which stoves they would consider buying for themselves. Their choices never involved CO or PM2.5 emissions. They involved stability, height of the cook surface from the ground, heat output and the controllability of the heat output and, of course, cost.

To be honest, not a single stove has succeeded in our area in North Thailand in either the lowland Thain or mountain communities. The stoves never had a chance in the mountain communities, where the fact that they did not put out smoke doomed them from the start. ("We know all about bad smoke," they told our focus group leader, "but without smoke, we have no protection against mosquitoes and our kids will die of malaria or dengue. Between risking dying nor or later, we prefer later.")

Among the lowland Thais, heat output is the biggest deal after cost and availability. The most likely consumers are restaurant and noodle stand owners who have large pots of broth to keep hot all day. They want a fire that they can stoke up to really hot to get 10 gallons boiling and then keep it simmering for 12 hours.

Highly efficient, clean stoves won't do it. Pot stoves and stones will.

So will briquettes made with biochar. As long as they they are properly dried, they light fast, burn much hotter and longer than regular charcoal, don't smoke and don't smell. Women can buy them for the same price as charcoal, but they work much better - and don't leave the pot black with tarry gunk. Yes, they emit CO, but no PM2.5. And because they represent no more than the substitution of a new version of a known product for an old one, they require no impossible marketing and sales effort (not that anyone has put put one into stoves).

General suggestion: If the aim of evaluation is not merely technical, but instead is meant to market test stoves that will actually sell, it would be a good idea to begin by surveying a large number of women in their kitchens to find out what matters to them in a cook stove.

M

Michael Shafer
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Dr. D. Michael Shafer
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+1 732-745-9295<tel:+1%20732-745-9295> | +66 (0)85 199-2958<tel:+66%20(0)85%20199-2958> | d.michael.shafer@gmail.com<mailto:d.michael.shafer@gmail.com>


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61 M.8 T.Maepang A.Phrao 50190 Chiang Mai Thailand


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On Tue, Sep 10, 2019 at 10:58 PM tmiles@trmiles.com<mailto:tmiles@trmiles.com> [biochar] <biochar@yahoogroups.com<mailto:biochar@yahoogroups.com>> wrote:

Sweden, Kenya: Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential

Household air pollution annually kills around 14 300 people in Kenya, due to the hazardous smoke of incomplete combustion coming from inefficient stoves. Exposure to this smoke leads to lethal health issues for the women and children staying in these kitchens, but the smoke also leads to a contribution to global warming. Which makes it important finding a replacement for the inefficient traditional cooking methods.

This report presents results from a field work situated in Kibugu, Embu in central Kenya. It includes testing of three stoves, the traditional Three stone open fire and two biochar producing stoves, the previously tested stove Gastov made by KIRDI and the MiG|BioCooker made by Make It Green Solutions AB. The data was collected using participatory cooking tests where five households got to cook the traditional meal Ugali with Sukuma wiki and Githeri (maize and beans). Firewood consumption, emissions of CO and PM, user experience and char production were measured during the test, to be able to compare the stoves.

The results indicate that the MiG|BioCooker can decrease the emissions of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchens and produce biochar. But on the other hand, cooking with three stone open fire more effective in terms of cooking time. Even though the MiG|BioCooker could improve the conditions of the household’s indoor air, the users seems to prioritize the practical characteristics of the three stone open fire that gives them more time and making it easier to cook. But with some modifications and by further use of the MiG|BioCooker, it might be a possible substitute to the three stone open fire in the future.

https://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1349162/FULLTEXT01.pdf<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__kth.diva-2Dportal.org_smash_get_diva2-3A1349162_FULLTEXT01.pdf&d=DwMFaQ&c=eLbWYnpnzycBCgmb7vCI4uqNEB9RSjOdn_5nBEmmeq0&r=vpvQhV2EKW5379sz106UEw&m=HdKqhIM8FgMhysEnH6FEA_pqgQ-5CgIhnYN-TwWCQEY&s=wYuhX8HTgTDqNVMbWAbvQSOScjFU6zKvMPxRDcHMCkw&e=>

Tom Miles
Chair
International Biochar Initiative
Biochar-international.org
[Logo160.]


d.michael.shafer@gmail.com
 

True, but as long as the stuff is dry, it is very light. You might be able
to convince them that the health benefits merit the burden of still another
bag to sling onto of the caravan.

Speaking of which, the Masai are not much for digging (too farmer like),
but if you could convince a few, they could easily make char while on the
move. There is a lot of dry wood around and about (dead brush and the
like). if they dug a short trench and built a fire in it, they could make
char that they could then "quench" by kicking the dirt they dug out of the
hole back in on top of it. Stomp the dirt down, leave it over night and by
morning you could have a few kg of char.

M

Michael Shafer
www.warmheartworldwide.org
www.twitter.com/warmheartorg
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On Thu, Sep 12, 2019 at 5:16 PM 'Teel, Wayne - teelws' teelws@jmu.edu
[biochar] <biochar@yahoogroups.com> wrote:



Michael,



Good point. I have some Maasai friends. I will ask them about it and see
what else I missed about charcoal. The problem was I tested in a town, but
the cattle were mostly out on range so I seldom saw them in the place where
I was testing the stoves. The Maasai are highly mobile – you would have to
carry a stove, but the three stones you can find anywhere.



Wayne



*From:* biochar@yahoogroups.com <biochar@yahoogroups.com>
*Sent:* Thursday, September 12, 2019 2:31 AM
*To:* biochar <biochar@yahoogroups.com>
*Subject:* Re: [biochar] Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural
Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar
production potential





Wayne,



Obviously we have had similar experiences with stoves, but I must disagree
about cattle peoples and biochar. Elsewhere in Africa, biochar in cattle
feed has proved to be very beneficial. It reduces intestinal illnesses and
increases both weight gain and milk yield.

Cows will eat it straight, but like it better with a bit of salt (iodized
if available) or sugar (molasses is available).



M


Michael Shafer
www.warmheartworldwide.org
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On Wed, Sep 11, 2019 at 5:01 PM 'Teel, Wayne - teelws' teelws@jmu.edu
[biochar] <biochar@yahoogroups.com> wrote:



Michael and Tom,



Michael is correct here. I took three TLUD stoves of differing sizes to
Tanzania in 2015 and worked with some women in Longido in northern
Tanzania. They really like the stoves because they could use small, easy
to collect sticks, .5 to 1.5 cm in diameter, random lengths, rather than
larger wood that took much longer to find. However the burn time when
completely full was around 20 minutes, long enough to make tea or ugali
(corn meal, thick porridge that is a local staple) or white rice, but not
long enough for maize and beans, the real staple. That takes a two hour
burn. So they were happy with the TLUD, but only for quick cooking. For
the longer cooking foods they used a charcoal jiko (stove). They loved the
smokeless burn especially when they made tea in the morning or late
afternoon, but it just did not work for the main meal. (Mosquitos are not
a problem in the dry parts of East Africa, but you do get lots of flies
associated with the grazing/browsing animals.) The other issue with the
Maasai is that they have no use for the biochar (pastoralists not farmers),
so when I showed them how to quench the TLUD, they were indifferent, they
just used the resulting charcoal in the jiko later. Socially appropriate
technology is important and that is associated with place and culture.



Wayne



*From:* biochar@yahoogroups.com <biochar@yahoogroups.com>
*Sent:* Wednesday, September 11, 2019 1:17 AM
*To:* biochar <biochar@yahoogroups.com>
*Subject:* Re: [biochar] Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural
Kenya: Energy efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar
production potential





Tom,



Indirectly, this raises a set of issues related to stoves that are seldom
discussed. Those evaluating stove performance often arrive with their own
notions of what matters and seldom take into consideration what matters
most to the woman in whose kitchen they are visiting (if, indeed, they
visit at all). At the end of the day, we have always found that the
technical differences among stoves are relatively small. On the other hand,
women have been very decisive about which stoves they would consider buying
for themselves. Their choices never involved CO or PM2.5 emissions. They
involved stability, height of the cook surface from the ground, heat output
and the controllability of the heat output and, of course, cost.



To be honest, not a single stove has succeeded in our area in North
Thailand in either the lowland Thain or mountain communities. The stoves
never had a chance in the mountain communities, where the fact that they
did not put out smoke doomed them from the start. ("We know all about bad
smoke," they told our focus group leader, "but without smoke, we have no
protection against mosquitoes and our kids will die of malaria or dengue.
Between risking dying nor or later, we prefer later.")



Among the lowland Thais, heat output is the biggest deal after cost and
availability. The most likely consumers are restaurant and noodle stand
owners who have large pots of broth to keep hot all day. They want a fire
that they can stoke up to really hot to get 10 gallons boiling and then
keep it simmering for 12 hours.



Highly efficient, clean stoves won't do it. Pot stoves and stones will.



So will briquettes made with biochar. As long as they they are properly
dried, they light fast, burn much hotter and longer than regular charcoal,
don't smoke and don't smell. Women can buy them for the same price as
charcoal, but they work much better - and don't leave the pot black with
tarry gunk. Yes, they emit CO, but no PM2.5. And because they represent no
more than the substitution of a new version of a known product for an old
one, they require no impossible marketing and sales effort (not that anyone
has put put one into stoves).



General suggestion: If the aim of evaluation is not merely technical, but
instead is meant to market test stoves that will actually sell, it would be
a good idea to begin by surveying a large number of women in their kitchens
to find out what matters to them in a cook stove.



M


Michael Shafer
www.warmheartworldwide.org
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[image: photo]

*Dr. D. Michael Shafer*
Founder and Director, Warm Heart

+1 732-745-9295 <+1%20732-745-9295> | +66 (0)85 199-2958
<+66%20(0)85%20199-2958> | d.michael.shafer@gmail.com

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On Tue, Sep 10, 2019 at 10:58 PM tmiles@trmiles.com [biochar] <
biochar@yahoogroups.com> wrote:



Sweden, Kenya: Use of Biochar Producing Cookstoves in Rural Kenya: Energy
efficiency, air pollution concentrations, and biochar production potential

Household air pollution annually kills around 14 300 people in Kenya, due
to the hazardous smoke of incomplete combustion coming from inefficient
stoves. Exposure to this smoke leads to lethal health issues for the women
and children staying in these kitchens, but the smoke also leads to a
contribution to global warming. Which makes it important finding a
replacement for the inefficient traditional cooking methods.

This report presents results from a field work situated in Kibugu, Embu in
central Kenya. It includes testing of three stoves, the traditional Three
stone open fire and two biochar producing stoves, the previously tested
stove Gastov made by KIRDI and the MiG|BioCooker made by Make It Green
Solutions AB. The data was collected using participatory cooking tests
where five households got to cook the traditional meal Ugali with Sukuma
wiki and Githeri (maize and beans). Firewood consumption, emissions of CO
and PM, user experience and char production were measured during the test,
to be able to compare the stoves.

The results indicate that the MiG|BioCooker can decrease the emissions of
PM2.5 and CO in the kitchens and produce biochar. But on the other hand,
cooking with three stone open fire more effective in terms of cooking time.
Even though the MiG|BioCooker could improve the conditions of the
household’s indoor air, the users seems to prioritize the practical
characteristics of the three stone open fire that gives them more time and
making it easier to cook. But with some modifications and by further use of
the MiG|BioCooker, it might be a possible substitute to the three stone
open fire in the future.



https://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1349162/FULLTEXT01.pdf
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Tom Miles

Chair

International Biochar Initiative

Biochar-international.org

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