ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ - Burn; using fire tore: cool the Earth; please pass on #terms


Kathleen Draper
 

Thank you Paul for the recommendation!

 

An interesting lesson learned for me about writing a book was that the authors do not necessarily get to choose the title of their own book. Albert & I had a working title of “Carbon Cascades” throughout most of the writing process for BURN. A few weeks before the final manuscript was approved, our publisher let us know that the title was being reconsidered. They had various suggestions and we also provided a few alternatives.  They determined  the final title. That said, I personally really like the title as many folks, including myself, that produce biochar in a low-tech manner refer to the process of making biochar as ‘doing a burn’.  When I am educating folks about pyrolysis, however, I generally use the term ‘baking’ instead of ‘burning’ as that is easier for them to conceptualize that oxygen free environment.

 

What has been really interesting to see since we submitted the manuscript, is the evolution of some of the research ideas to the beginning of commercialization of some of these concepts especially the use in asphalt, concrete, etc.

 

Cheers

Kathleen  

 

Global best practices for biochar in agriculture, landscaping, reforestation, construction and more: https://www.biochar-journal.org/en

New articles about climate farming, wine growing and ecology in our Ithaka Journal: http://www.ithaka-journal.net/?lang=en

Biochar blogging at: http://fingerlakesbiochar.com/blog/ 

Co-author BURN:Using Fire to Cool the Earth

 

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Paul Belanger
Sent: Sunday, February 2, 2020 1:30 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: [Biochar] ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ – Burn; using fire tore: cool the Earth; please pass on

 

Apologies if redundant and I’ve just catching on – but maybe worth it:

 

RE: ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ – Burn; using fire to cool the Earth by Albert Bate and Kathleen Draper. Encourage your libraries and local bookstores to buy it.

   

I’m not sure the title using those words Burn and Fire is the most appropriate – but it is what it is; maybe it’ll cause enough attention this time around?

 

I certainly recommend the book as a must read. Decarbonizing energy and transportation is not going to happen fast enough and thus sequestration needs to be added to part of the solutions in addition to the adaptation and its costs that we face in the future.

 

The book is about creating charcoal and burying it in the soil – thus creating biochar  - FOR 100s of years. That and other sustainable soil restoration practices.

 

The book starts out with the history of how Charles David Keeling as a postdoc in 1954 at Caltech who developed an apparatus to measure atmospheric CO2, how it attracted the attention of Roger Revelle, director at the time of Scripps institute of Oceanography how he recruited him to Scripps and sent him to Mauna Loa to set up measurement. Includes mention of co-authoring a paper with Wally Broecker, Harmon Craig and Joseph Smagorinsky – the attempts to get the attention of Kennedy, some of Lyndon B Johnson, ignored by Nixon, on Ford’s desk whose chief of staff was coal supporter Dick Cheney. It got Carter’s attention followed by undid all that Carter started. Later George H, oil magnate who commissioned the George Marshall institute that ultimately began the disinformation campaign.

In the meantime Revelle taught physics to Al Gore then a theology student – and thus we know how that developed to the “Inconvenient Truth”

 

There are easy, cheap, dirty and inefficient ways to make char (TLUDs = Top lit up-draft; flame cap, etc.) vs the most efficient methods retorting and capturing heat and pyrolysis gases (primarily CO and H2) for biofuels etc. Here’s a model of that described in the book but I was able to get a color version by googling – reference below:

 

Costs and Energy budgets for transportation of feedstocks become hurdles to overcome. There are win-win benefits to farmers – soil enhancements, moisture retention and reduced dependency of commercial fertilizers – i.e. more sustainable practices. Can it be done in a large-scale commercial way?

 

 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/47545113_Sustainable_biochar_to_mitigate_global_climate_change_Nat_Comm_156

 

Some History: How I got involved.

 

As some of you know – ever since getting the Denver climate study forum group and email list going with Genevieve Young and with the help of Kirk Johnson and Bob Raynolds some 13-14 years ago (2006 see (https://denverclimatestudygroup.com/?page_id=2), I invited Ron Larson to talk on Biochar. And thus my journey of discovery of that aspect of Sequestration. The Yahoo Denver Climate study group’s forum stalled after a couple years – but the yahoo email list continued and morphed to discussions of the big picture – Sustainability and it’s sub-components: climate change, all forms of energy, the environment, population, solutions, etc.

 

Anyway – as things moved on the yahoo group is mostly quiet I still kept the https://denverclimatestudygroup.com/ web page and morphed it to suit my needs as I got more involved especially in OLLI classes, Biochar and the Ethics and Ecological Economics Forum (now with it’s own domain https://eeeforum.org/ https://eeeforum.org/ ). I also created a Facebook blog page: https://www.facebook.com/denverclimatestudygroup/

 

That led to the BIOCHAR tab within  - link here: https://denverclimatestudygroup.com/?page_id=28 – I do this on my own and welcome input/feedback.

 

I’m a member of IBI https://biochar-international.org/burn-using-fire-to-cool-the-earth/ recently attended the ETHOS conference in Kirkland http://www.ethoscon.com/ for which there’s an archive link at the bottom. From it I got to realize how dirty particulates can be and how we must develop more efficient and cleaner BIOCHAR making retort chambers to utilize the heat and pyrolysis fuel byproducts; costs and transportation costs being big hurdles – as I see it.

 

Here’s an excellent site I believe led by Tom Miles of the US biochar initiative; go here for lots of links of good information: http://biochar-us.org/biochar-information

 

All the best

Paul

 

Paul Belanger, Geologist/Paleoclimatologist, Ph.D.

http://denverclimatestudygroup.com/ and on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/denverclimatestudygroup/

pebelanger@...

2276 Mariner Beach Dr., Oak Harbor, WA 98277

c. 303-249-7966; h 303-526-7996

“People who say in cannot be done should not interrupt those who are doing it!”

George Bernard Shaw

 


Paul Belanger
 

Thanks for the replies – from you Kathleen, Rick Wilson and Bob Gillett’s comment about Tom Miles composting email (the latter 2 copy/pasted below in that I’m replying to these 3 emails):

 

Now that I’ve “jumped” in after ETHOS, connecting with some local “biocharers” (Norm Baker,  Francesco Tortorici, Tom Vincent, Jerry Whitfield (though I don’t think he’s on this list) etc. ) and sending out an email or 2 to the list maybe I’ll do a better job of keeping up with the list (too many fingers in too many pies).

 

Kathleen and Rick – I’ll read further on non-soil based application – I can see that for any non-char based sequestration, but seems a waste in terms of soil-restoration/food production benefits.

But like Tom, Rick and Bob mention – I’ve focused on soil benefits – a win-win for farmers; it’ll help reduce dependency on fertilizers (if they get to realize/appreciate it). But costs and availability part of the issue there as ongoing thread by Tom Miles and others point out.

 

I’m a proponent that there should be state and federal incentives to this kind of soil-restoration in like-kind to the incentives given PV and EVs. It’ll also help bring us together on the pollical spectrum in finding climate solutions.

 

Re the title – it’s history, nor did I have any idea how publishers of books try to tweak it/change it; and if I don’t have constructive criticism – shut up eh? I like “baking” as a explanation though – thanks for that. It helps explain the activation energy to get pyrolysis going; we see it in an “open” barrel – but if it were a retort/enclosed chamber it would still get going – that’s a hard concept for many to “grasp”.

The other concept I have trouble people grasping is the carbon negativity of biochar – ok – bury it for hundreds of years but to the audience I find that they think it counter intuitive to “burn” it (whether for activation energy or producing CO and H2 to capture and make biofuels in a retort chamber and subsequent collection – or outright burning the pyrolysis gases without such a system. I try to explain it as accelerated composting of renewable plant biomass (i.e. it would decay in 5 to 10 years (more/less), but whereby some 20-30? can be captured as char and put in the soils for hundreds of years. Very hard to get across – despite the diagrams etc.

 

Rick – thanks for the book suggestions – passed on by David Takahashi in the past – just haven’t “caught” up.

But re – the capture of syngas, the energy for the chemistry to build the biofuels and the energy for drying feedstock – I totally agree. NREL has division working on that – Ron Larson probably knows more – and possibly posted in the past (sorry if I’m not current on those posts).

 

Maybe cited in earlier posts too?

…best

Paul

 

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Kathleen Draper via Groups.Io
Sent: Monday, February 3, 2020 5:06 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [Biochar] ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ - Burn; using fire tore: cool the Earth; please pass on

 

Thank you Paul for the recommendation!

 

An interesting lesson learned for me about writing a book was that the authors do not necessarily get to choose the title of their own book. Albert & I had a working title of “Carbon Cascades” throughout most of the writing process for BURN. A few weeks before the final manuscript was approved, our publisher let us know that the title was being reconsidered. They had various suggestions and we also provided a few alternatives.  They determined  the final title. That said, I personally really like the title as many folks, including myself, that produce biochar in a low-tech manner refer to the process of making biochar as ‘doing a burn’.  When I am educating folks about pyrolysis, however, I generally use the term ‘baking’ instead of ‘burning’ as that is easier for them to conceptualize that oxygen free environment.

 

What has been really interesting to see since we submitted the manuscript, is the evolution of some of the research ideas to the beginning of commercialization of some of these concepts especially the use in asphalt, concrete, etc.

 

Cheers

Kathleen  

 

Global best practices for biochar in agriculture, landscaping, reforestation, construction and more: https://www.biochar-journal.org/en

New articles about climate farming, wine growing and ecology in our Ithaka Journal: http://www.ithaka-journal.net/?lang=en

Biochar blogging at: http://fingerlakesbiochar.com/blog/ 

Co-author BURN:Using Fire to Cool the Earth

 

ALSO IN REPLY TO RICK WILSON’S email pasted below to include in this thread:

 

To: main@Biochar.groups.io; main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [Biochar] ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ – Burn; using fire tore: cool the Earth; please pass on

 

Paul,

You should also read Biochar for Environmental Management, and the Biochar Revoluation.  These are the (older) classics. What the Burn book contributes, not covered by these older classics, are applications outside of soils. 

 

I have laid to rest my hopes of making biofuels from the CO and H2 from pyrolysis gases.  I tried at Cool Planet. 

Not ready to challenge the first law of thermodynamics. 

 

True, you can make fuel from CO and H2 from pyrolysis vapors. 

 

The problem with doing so with biomass is that you need to add vast amounts of energy, and hydrogen, to do the chemistry.  The energy density, and hydrogen content, of biomass is very low.  And that for fuels is exceptionally high.

 

So you need an outside source of energy and hydrogen, natural gas is the default.   GHG intensive. 

 

In fact, you can't even run a pyrolysis unit energetically if you start with raw biomass because you need energy to dry the biomass to 20% moisture before you can run the pyrolysis unit energetically from the CO and H2 produced. 

 

My view, focusing on the soil benefits, and carbon sequestration, clarifying the message, is the path forward for biochar. 

 

Rick 

 

AND THIS ONE

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of ROBERT W GILLETT via Groups.Io
Sent: Monday, February 3, 2020 6:19 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [Biochar] USBI Biochar Workshop at Compost 2020 #compost #workshop

 

Tom,

Thank-you for the report which marks a big win for biochar in the U.S. When I attended Compost 2019 in Phoenix, it was painful to see how the compost industry was overlooking what I consider the best use of compost, i.e. a vehicle for biochar (the inverse of how they see it, I'm sure). The interest that must have been generated by all of these talks will surely lead to a whirl of synergy between the biochar and composting communities that we hope will turn into a whirlwind sweeping compost and biochar into new popularity nationwide.

Bob Gillett

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Paul Belanger
Sent: Sunday, February 2, 2020 1:30 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: [Biochar] ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ – Burn; using fire tore: cool the Earth; please pass on

 

Apologies if redundant and I’ve just catching on – but maybe worth it:

 

RE: ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ – Burn; using fire to cool the Earth by Albert Bate and Kathleen Draper. Encourage your libraries and local bookstores to buy it.

   

I’m not sure the title using those words Burn and Fire is the most appropriate – but it is what it is; maybe it’ll cause enough attention this time around?

 

I certainly recommend the book as a must read. Decarbonizing energy and transportation is not going to happen fast enough and thus sequestration needs to be added to part of the solutions in addition to the adaptation and its costs that we face in the future.

 

The book is about creating charcoal and burying it in the soil – thus creating biochar  - FOR 100s of years. That and other sustainable soil restoration practices.

 

The book starts out with the history of how Charles David Keeling as a postdoc in 1954 at Caltech who developed an apparatus to measure atmospheric CO2, how it attracted the attention of Roger Revelle, director at the time of Scripps institute of Oceanography how he recruited him to Scripps and sent him to Mauna Loa to set up measurement. Includes mention of co-authoring a paper with Wally Broecker, Harmon Craig and Joseph Smagorinsky – the attempts to get the attention of Kennedy, some of Lyndon B Johnson, ignored by Nixon, on Ford’s desk whose chief of staff was coal supporter Dick Cheney. It got Carter’s attention followed by undid all that Carter started. Later George H, oil magnate who commissioned the George Marshall institute that ultimately began the disinformation campaign.

In the meantime Revelle taught physics to Al Gore then a theology student – and thus we know how that developed to the “Inconvenient Truth”

 

There are easy, cheap, dirty and inefficient ways to make char (TLUDs = Top lit up-draft; flame cap, etc.) vs the most efficient methods retorting and capturing heat and pyrolysis gases (primarily CO and H2) for biofuels etc. Here’s a model of that described in the book but I was able to get a color version by googling – reference below:

 

Costs and Energy budgets for transportation of feedstocks become hurdles to overcome. There are win-win benefits to farmers – soil enhancements, moisture retention and reduced dependency of commercial fertilizers – i.e. more sustainable practices. Can it be done in a large-scale commercial way?

 

 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/47545113_Sustainable_biochar_to_mitigate_global_climate_change_Nat_Comm_156

 

Some History: How I got involved.

 

As some of you know – ever since getting the Denver climate study forum group and email list going with Genevieve Young and with the help of Kirk Johnson and Bob Raynolds some 13-14 years ago (2006 see (https://denverclimatestudygroup.com/?page_id=2), I invited Ron Larson to talk on Biochar. And thus my journey of discovery of that aspect of Sequestration. The Yahoo Denver Climate study group’s forum stalled after a couple years – but the yahoo email list continued and morphed to discussions of the big picture – Sustainability and it’s sub-components: climate change, all forms of energy, the environment, population, solutions, etc.

 

Anyway – as things moved on the yahoo group is mostly quiet I still kept the https://denverclimatestudygroup.com/ web page and morphed it to suit my needs as I got more involved especially in OLLI classes, Biochar and the Ethics and Ecological Economics Forum (now with it’s own domain https://eeeforum.org/ https://eeeforum.org/ ). I also created a Facebook blog page: https://www.facebook.com/denverclimatestudygroup/

 

That led to the BIOCHAR tab within  - link here: https://denverclimatestudygroup.com/?page_id=28 – I do this on my own and welcome input/feedback.

 

I’m a member of IBI https://biochar-international.org/burn-using-fire-to-cool-the-earth/ recently attended the ETHOS conference in Kirkland http://www.ethoscon.com/ for which there’s an archive link at the bottom. From it I got to realize how dirty particulates can be and how we must develop more efficient and cleaner BIOCHAR making retort chambers to utilize the heat and pyrolysis fuel byproducts; costs and transportation costs being big hurdles – as I see it.

 

Here’s an excellent site I believe led by Tom Miles of the US biochar initiative; go here for lots of links of good information: http://biochar-us.org/biochar-information

 

All the best

Paul

 

Paul Belanger, Geologist/Paleoclimatologist, Ph.D.

http://denverclimatestudygroup.com/ and on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/denverclimatestudygroup/

pebelanger@...

2276 Mariner Beach Dr., Oak Harbor, WA 98277

c. 303-249-7966; h 303-526-7996

“People who say in cannot be done should not interrupt those who are doing it!”

George Bernard Shaw

 


Frank Strie
 

Superb response Kathleen,
thank you.
In reality we burn the volatile  and stabilise as we carbonise.
In Switzerland Hans-Peter Schmidt’s slogan was for a very long time:
“Photosynthesise = Carbonise”    
and the other quote from the Austrian and  German collaborators is:
“Knowledge is the treasure that continuously increases in value by sharing it”.

This why we work so well as an  open source network around the world.
When it comes to Biochar Action, Adam O’Toole  the Australian Soil Scientist leading the Biochar project in Norway was suggesting:
“From Zero to Hero” – and it is great to watch and learn with the network how things fit into the local and global context.

For me and my family living and working in Tasmania / Australia, this is what we have to deal with at this point in time, and here a link I should share with you all :


For anyone who cares to see what happens when a whole country talks about fuel and fuel reduction and still not come to realise that
FUEL is Energy - Stored Solar Energy in fact.
Australia and the world needs to get into Carbon Climate Action - Pyrogenic Carbon Capture and Sequestration PyCCS.
The Ithaka Institute's Kathleen 
Kathleen Martin Draper has published the Biochar Displacement Strategy in 'The Biochar Journal'.
It is time to get the head around it, tell your family and friends
Any questions, ideas, comments?
Tell me / us and then let's get on with it.
This is what we watched a few hours ago on National TV in Australia:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AdGqTQkRVwE&feature=share&fbclid=IwAR2YDie3xOk9_kqrv9AnRDBBHB_cWwIZRNoq9F9OxndbdWheujysaoWMBGs

and this for the Farmers from Sunday, 2nd Feb 2020:

WARNING - this is the saddest LANDLINE I have ever seen!
It is shocking in reality and it is calling for change in vegetation management.
Pyrogenic Carbon Capture & Sequestration PyCCS , the Carbon Cascade as outlined in BURN Using Fire to Cool the Earth needs to be part of the strategy for a climate positive - carbon negative future.
The IBI International Biochar Initiative IBI, The Ithaka Institute and the Biochar Journal provide growing information that can assist to speed things up and offer new ideas, possibilities and examples already on the way in various communities.
Get in touch if you like to get things moving without delay.

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-02-02/kangaroo-island-sheep-stock-timber-destroyed-in-bushfires/11917220?fbclid=IwAR131iL7KdZR6cIm0VP3Bm8sP7sh1edFhWyoy8Oo6tkFnaA51nSdHoeEE_I


The Biochar related Industries around the world can contribute with ideas, suggestions and recommendations to explore what needs to / what can be done with all this mess.
Best wishes and thanks
Frank

www.terrapretadevelopments.com.au

 

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Kathleen Draper
Sent: Tuesday, February 4, 2020 12:06 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: Re: [Biochar] ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ - Burn; using fire tore: cool the Earth; please pass on

 

Thank you Paul for the recommendation!

 

An interesting lesson learned for me about writing a book was that the authors do not necessarily get to choose the title of their own book. Albert & I had a working title of “Carbon Cascades” throughout most of the writing process for BURN. A few weeks before the final manuscript was approved, our publisher let us know that the title was being reconsidered. They had various suggestions and we also provided a few alternatives.  They determined  the final title. That said, I personally really like the title as many folks, including myself, that produce biochar in a low-tech manner refer to the process of making biochar as ‘doing a burn’.  When I am educating folks about pyrolysis, however, I generally use the term ‘baking’ instead of ‘burning’ as that is easier for them to conceptualize that oxygen free environment.

 

What has been really interesting to see since we submitted the manuscript, is the evolution of some of the research ideas to the beginning of commercialization of some of these concepts especially the use in asphalt, concrete, etc.

 

Cheers

Kathleen  

 

Global best practices for biochar in agriculture, landscaping, reforestation, construction and more: https://www.biochar-journal.org/en

New articles about climate farming, wine growing and ecology in our Ithaka Journal: http://www.ithaka-journal.net/?lang=en

Biochar blogging at: http://fingerlakesbiochar.com/blog/ 

Co-author BURN:Using Fire to Cool the Earth

 

 

From: main@Biochar.groups.io <main@Biochar.groups.io> On Behalf Of Paul Belanger
Sent: Sunday, February 2, 2020 1:30 AM
To: main@Biochar.groups.io
Subject: [Biochar] ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ – Burn; using fire tore: cool the Earth; please pass on

 

Apologies if redundant and I’ve just catching on – but maybe worth it:

 

RE: ON BIOCHAR - A MUST READ – Burn; using fire to cool the Earth by Albert Bate and Kathleen Draper. Encourage your libraries and local bookstores to buy it.

   

I’m not sure the title using those words Burn and Fire is the most appropriate – but it is what it is; maybe it’ll cause enough attention this time around?

 

I certainly recommend the book as a must read. Decarbonizing energy and transportation is not going to happen fast enough and thus sequestration needs to be added to part of the solutions in addition to the adaptation and its costs that we face in the future.

 

The book is about creating charcoal and burying it in the soil – thus creating biochar  - FOR 100s of years. That and other sustainable soil restoration practices.

 

The book starts out with the history of how Charles David Keeling as a postdoc in 1954 at Caltech who developed an apparatus to measure atmospheric CO2, how it attracted the attention of Roger Revelle, director at the time of Scripps institute of Oceanography how he recruited him to Scripps and sent him to Mauna Loa to set up measurement. Includes mention of co-authoring a paper with Wally Broecker, Harmon Craig and Joseph Smagorinsky – the attempts to get the attention of Kennedy, some of Lyndon B Johnson, ignored by Nixon, on Ford’s desk whose chief of staff was coal supporter Dick Cheney. It got Carter’s attention followed by undid all that Carter started. Later George H, oil magnate who commissioned the George Marshall institute that ultimately began the disinformation campaign.

In the meantime Revelle taught physics to Al Gore then a theology student – and thus we know how that developed to the “Inconvenient Truth”

 

There are easy, cheap, dirty and inefficient ways to make char (TLUDs = Top lit up-draft; flame cap, etc.) vs the most efficient methods retorting and capturing heat and pyrolysis gases (primarily CO and H2) for biofuels etc. Here’s a model of that described in the book but I was able to get a color version by googling – reference below:

 

Costs and Energy budgets for transportation of feedstocks become hurdles to overcome. There are win-win benefits to farmers – soil enhancements, moisture retention and reduced dependency of commercial fertilizers – i.e. more sustainable practices. Can it be done in a large-scale commercial way?

 

 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/47545113_Sustainable_biochar_to_mitigate_global_climate_change_Nat_Comm_156

 

Some History: How I got involved.

 

As some of you know – ever since getting the Denver climate study forum group and email list going with Genevieve Young and with the help of Kirk Johnson and Bob Raynolds some 13-14 years ago (2006 see (https://denverclimatestudygroup.com/?page_id=2), I invited Ron Larson to talk on Biochar. And thus my journey of discovery of that aspect of Sequestration. The Yahoo Denver Climate study group’s forum stalled after a couple years – but the yahoo email list continued and morphed to discussions of the big picture – Sustainability and it’s sub-components: climate change, all forms of energy, the environment, population, solutions, etc.

 

Anyway – as things moved on the yahoo group is mostly quiet I still kept the https://denverclimatestudygroup.com/ web page and morphed it to suit my needs as I got more involved especially in OLLI classes, Biochar and the Ethics and Ecological Economics Forum (now with it’s own domain https://eeeforum.org/ https://eeeforum.org/ ). I also created a Facebook blog page: https://www.facebook.com/denverclimatestudygroup/

 

That led to the BIOCHAR tab within  - link here: https://denverclimatestudygroup.com/?page_id=28 – I do this on my own and welcome input/feedback.

 

I’m a member of IBI https://biochar-international.org/burn-using-fire-to-cool-the-earth/ recently attended the ETHOS conference in Kirkland http://www.ethoscon.com/ for which there’s an archive link at the bottom. From it I got to realize how dirty particulates can be and how we must develop more efficient and cleaner BIOCHAR making retort chambers to utilize the heat and pyrolysis fuel byproducts; costs and transportation costs being big hurdles – as I see it.

 

Here’s an excellent site I believe led by Tom Miles of the US biochar initiative; go here for lots of links of good information: http://biochar-us.org/biochar-information

 

All the best

Paul

 

Paul Belanger, Geologist/Paleoclimatologist, Ph.D.

http://denverclimatestudygroup.com/ and on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/denverclimatestudygroup/

pebelanger@...

2276 Mariner Beach Dr., Oak Harbor, WA 98277

c. 303-249-7966; h 303-526-7996

“People who say in cannot be done should not interrupt those who are doing it!”

George Bernard Shaw